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The Silver Coins of England

Edward Hawkins, 1841
Sole Monarchs of England - Charles I, Shillings

Table of Contents

Charles I., 1625-1649.

Tower Mint: Type 1. King's head to left, crowned, ruff, collar, royal mantle, XII. behind the head. Rev. Square plain shield, over a cross fleury; the harp is ornamented with a bird's head. CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO. MM. Lis. (510). Rud. xix. 7. Sn. ix. 5. MB. 3 var. Sometimes the shield has a plume over it and no cross fleury, like type 1. b. CUFF.

Type 1, a. Bust in armour nearly concealed by the broad scarf fastened upon the shoulder; ruff round neck, in other respects like type 1. MM. Negro's head. Rud. xix. 8. MB. Long cross. MB. 2. Castle. MB.

Type 1. b. Sometimes there is a plume over the shield, in which case there is not any appearance of a cross. MM. Negro's head. MB. Long cross. MB. 2. Castle. Rud. xix. 9. MB. Upright anchor. CUFF. Heart. (512). MB. The coins with this last mark are neater than the others, and the harp in the shield is without the bird's head.

Type 2. a. Obverse nearly the same, but rather more armour visible. Rev. Oval shield garnished, C. R. above, like the crown type 2. a. but without the cross. MM. Plume. (513). MB. 3. var. Rose. MB. 3.

Type 2. b. Similar, but with plume over shield. MM. Plume. Rud. xix. 11. Sn. ix. 11. MB. Rose. MB.

These shillings are larger than those without the Plume.

Type 3. Hair long, lovelock; armour without scarf, falling laced collar. Shield, oval, garnished, between C. R. MM. Harp. (514). MB. 5. Portcullis. Rud. xix. 12. MB. 2. The head is smaller and is confined within the legend; and it continues diminishing in size till about 1640, when the star MM. was adopted.

Type 3. a. Similar obv. Shield oval, differently garnished, without C. R. like crown type 3. No inner circle on either side. MM. Portcullis. Rud. F. 7. MB. Bell. MB. 2. Crown. MB. 2. Ton. (516). MB. 3.

Type 3. b. Similar, with Plume over the shield. MM. Bell. Rud. xix. 13. MB. 2. Crown. MB.

Type 4. Similar bust; shield square, plain, over a cross fleury, within the inner circle, which is now resumed. This does not correspond with any type of crown or half-crown. MM. Ton. MB. 4. Anchor. Rud. xix. 10. MB. 7. Triangle. MB. 3. Star. MB. The head with this and following MM. is better executed and has a broader crown (515); this head does occur with the anchor, which MM. therefore probably continued to 1639 or 1640. MB. Triangle within circle. MB. P within brackets. Rud. xx. 12. MB. R within brackets. MB. Eye: very neat workmanship. MB. Sun. MB. Of this there are two very different heads, one neat like that with the star MM., the other with rounder and coarser features. (517). Sceptre. Rud. xx. 13. Sn. ix. 17. MB. 2. Coarse features, like the later of those with Sun. MM.


  1. Bust with long hair, lovelock, falling lace collar, armour, scarf fastened on the shoulder by a rose. MM. Flower and B. CAROLVS D. G. MAGN BRITANN FRAN ET HIB REX. R. Square topped shield over cross which extends to edge of coin. MM. B. Rud. xxi. 12. MB.
  2. Another without B on the reverse. Sn. x. 4.
  3. MM. Small lozenge and B. Rev. MM. doubtful. MB.
  4. MM. on both sides, Anchor. MB. The falling collar is plain with a broad lace boarder, no scarf; cross on rev. confined within inner circle.
  5. MM. on both sides, Anchor and B. Type similar to last; both read MAG BRIT FR ET HIB. Rud. xxii. 8. Sn. x. 8. MB. The falling collar was introduced into the mint in 1631 or 1632, and these pieces of Briot with the large cross on reverse were probably struck about the same time. Those with the smaller cross and anchor MM. were probably struck in 1638, when those peculiarities appeared upon the usual mint money.
Aberystwith Shillings: Bust similar to type 3, plume before face. Shield oval garnished like crown, type 3, over it a plume, inner circle on both sides. MM. Book. (518). MB. Sometimes the obverse is without inner circle. MB. Sometimes it is omitted on both sides, which gives the appearance of a smaller shield. Rud. xx. 15. Sn. x. 31. On some pieces the head is much smaller than on others.

Bristol Shillings:

  1. 1643. Bust, crowned, falling collar trimmed with lace of a stellate pattern, no plume before face, XII. behind head. MM. Plume. Rev. Declaration type. date 1643. MM. BR in monogram. Sn. xi. 25. Rud. Sup. v. 15. It is certainly by mistake that they give B. only as the MM. upon this coin with the date of 1643.
  2. 1644. Similar to the preceding but dated 1644. (519). MB.
  3. Bust different from the preceding, lace not stellate, the termination of the hair round the head well defined, and separate from the lovelock, no MM. Plume before the face. Rev. no. MM. but BR. under the date. Rud. xxiv. 3. MB. 2.
  4. Similar, but rev. MM. BR. no letters under the date. Sn. xi. 27.
  5. Similar, but no plume before face. Rev. MM. indistinct. Under the date BR. Sn. xi. 28.
  6. 1645. Similar, plume before face. Rev. MM. BR. no letters under date. Sn. xi. 26. Rud. Sup. v. 16. MB.
  7. Similar, but no plume before face. MB.
  8. Similar, no plume before face, no MM. on either side, BR. under date. Sn. xi. 29.
The legend of these Bristol pieces commences at the top of the coin.

Exeter Shillings: Bust after the same type as that of Bristol, but of rather inferior workmanship; there is not any distinct boundary between the general mass of hair and the lovelock; they are all without a plume before the face, and have all, on the obverse, MM. Rose, of peculiar form; all the obverses appear to be from the same die. Rev. 1. Shield oval, garnished, like crown type 3. MM. Rose, no date. MB.

2. Similar, but date 1644 at the end of legend on obverse. Rud. xxv. 6. Sn. xiii. 8. MB.

3. Similar, but MM. Rose in the middle of the date, 16 44. (520). MB.

4. Similar, but date 1645 at the end of legend on reverse. MB.

5. Rev. declaration type, no MM. date 1645, the legend commences at the side. Rud. Sup. v. 19. Sn. xiii. 9. MB.

Oxford Shillings: 1642. Obv. after the model of type 3. MM. Plume. Rev. no MM. EXVRGAT &c. Sn. xi. 24. MB. 2.

1643. Similar; the plumes over the inscription, are in some specimens very large. MB. 2.

1644. OX.

  1. Two lozenges at the end of the obv. legend. Rev. Plumes small, no MM. MB.
  2. Plumes larger, lozenges before and after the plumes and the date, and after the words of the legend and inscription. Rev. MM. Lozenge between four pellets; same dies as No. 9, coin large. Sn. xi. 32. MB.
  3. Rev. Somewhat similar. MM. four lozenges. MB.
  4. Rev. MM. Two lozenges; lozenges before and after OX, date, and plumes, and in the legend, and pellets between the words of the inscription. MB.
  5. Rev. with pellets, instead of lozenges, between the words of the legend as well as of the inscription. MB. The Museum specimen is double struck, so that the date reads 1044. The obverses of the above five coins are from the same die.
  6. Bust slightly different, lozenges between the words on both sides, the figures of the date curved. BERGNE. Sn. xi. 30.
  7. Bust in figured armour, lion's head on shoulder piece, falling laced collar, scarf looped up in front, R. for Rawlins on the truncation of the arm. Rev. A small quatrefoil for MM. and also before and after the plumes; a lozenge between each word of the legend and after the date and OX, and two after some words of the inscription.
  8. Bust in figured armour, lion's head on shoulder-piece, small plain collar, no scarf: MM. Plume. Rev. Scroll border above and below inscription, coin very large 1 3/8 inch. diam. (522). Sn. xi. 31. rev. only. MB.
  9. Bust to right, crowned, scarf looped up on the breast; armour with lion's head on shoulder, plain deep collar, behind the head IIX: all within the inner circle. MM. Plume. Rev. Plain lines above and below inscription, same dies as No. 2, 1 3/8 inch. diam. (523). MB. See sn. xi. 32.
  10. Bust similar to the preceding, but reaching below to the edge of the coin, and the scarf covering the shoulder; behind the head XII. no inner circle or MM. Rev. Inscription within a compartment, with one large plume over it, the date 1644 below, 1 1/8 diam. (524). MB.
If these two were current coins, they are the only ones of this reign which have the face turned in this direction: if they were only patterns they have this peculiarity in common only with some other pieces of this description.

All of the above have, on the obverse, MM. Plume; but no plume in front of the face. All the busts except Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, bear a strong resemblance to those of the Aberystwith mint; those of 1642 and 1643 less than those of 1644, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6, all of which have OX; and it will be observed that those letters upon shillings only of the year 1644.

York Shillings:

  1. Obv. after the model of type 3. MM. Lion. Rev. square shield over a cross fleury, like Briot's No. 1; over the shield EBOR. Rud. xxi. 4. Sn. x. 13. MB. 2.
  2. Bust in plain armour, mantle, and plain falling collar, coarse work. Rev. similar to preceding. (526). MB.
  3. Bust as No. 1. Shield oval, garnished like type 3. EBOR. underneath. Rud. xxi. 6. Sn. x. 14. MB.
  4. Bust similar, but lace of a different pattern; oval shield, different garniture, crowned, EBOR underneath. (527). Rud. xxi. 5. Sn. x. 15.
  5. Similar, but with lion's skin garniture. MB. 2.

Charles I, Uncertain Half-Crowns | Table of Contents | Charles I, Uncertain Shillings

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