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The Silver Coins of England

Edward Hawkins, 1841
Sole Monarchs of England - Edward III

Table of Contents

Edward III. 1327 to 1377.

The coins of Edward III. were groats, half groats, pennies, halfpennies and farthings; the weight of his earliest coinage is in the proportion of 22 2/9 gr. to the penny. From his 18th to his 20th year, 20 ¼ gr.; from the 20th to the 27th, 20 gr.; afterwards, till his death, 18 gr.

The groats were struck at London or York; the type has the bust of the king, front face, within a double tressure of nine arches. Rev. cross patee extending to the edge of the coin, three pellets in each angle. The king's titles run generally EDWARD. D. G. REX ANGL Z FRANC D HY or HYB. On the Rev. POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEV. on the outer legend, CIVITAS LONDON or EBORACI on the inner.

London: MM. Cross patee, an annulet is generally between the words of the legends. (307). Rud. iii. 9. MB. sometimes one appears between the pellets in one quarter. MB. Rud. iii. 11. and sometimes one in the spandril under the head. MB. One has a row of small annulets between the words, no annulet in any quarter, MEVM instead of MEV. MB. One reads DEI G REX ANGL DNS HYB. Z AQT. with two annulets between each word on obv. and two crosses between the words of outward legend on Rev. MB. Rud. iii. 7.

MM. Crown, annulets between the words, none in the quarters. Rud. iii. 8. MB. This is the first instance, from a royal mint, of any other MM. than the Christian symbol, which can scarcely have been considered as such.

York: MM. Cross patee, annulet generally between the words. MB.

The half groats were struck at London or York, and resemble the groats in type, and general character. The king is styled EDWARDVS REX ANGL Z FRANC. or ANGLI or FRANCI or FRACI. Sometimes REX ANGL DNS HYB. The Rev. has two legends, the outer POSVI &c. with slight variations in the contractions. The London groats have most frequently MM. Cross. MB. Rud. iii. 13. One reads AIVTOREM. (308). MB. Annulet or annulets are between the words of the legend. MB. sometimes between the pellets in one quarter. MB. sometimes in the spandril under the head. (309). MB. with crosses instead of annulets sometimes on those coins which bear the Irish titles. MB.

Sometimes the crown is used as MM. Rud. Sup. ii. 9. on both sides. MB. on the rev. MB. or on the obv. MB. the cross appearing on the opposite side; one of these las has the blundered legend POSVI DEV DEVM ADIM. MB.

York: MM. Cross. The Irish titles do not appear on them. MB. Sn. ii. 14. one has the tressure of ten arches. According to Rud. iii. 14. one reads ANGL FRA Z HI.

The coin represented Rud. Sup. 2. ii. 30. with a crown in each angle instead of pellets, was probably a pattern. It was bought at Toplady's sale for Dr. Hunter for 23..12..6. and is probably unique. Mr. Cuff has a piece with the same obv. but common reverse.

The pennies of Edward III. were struck at London, Durham, York and perhaps Canterbury. Berwich is also named as one of his mints, but we have never seen a coin of that place which we could safely assign to him. The type is like those of his predecessors, except that his bust is generally, perhaps always, without any indication of drapery.

London: EDWARDUS REX ANGL ANGLI or ANGLIE, and sometimes Z implying France. MM. on obv. only, Cross, an annulet occasionally between the pellets in each angle. MB. Rud. iii. 17. or in one angle. MB.; one of these last has an annulet on the king's breast. (310). MB. Generally there are annulets between the words; but one, which has crosses instead of annulets, has a quatrefoil upon the breast, and no objects between the pellets. MB. Upon those coins which have the Irish titles, the king's name is Edward only. EDWARD. ANGL. R. DNS HYB. MB. and the same spelling is observable upon one which reads R. ANGL Z FRANC. with a pellet or rosette on the breast. Mr. Bergne.

MM. Crown, usual titles, annulet in one quarter, reads LOM DOM. MB.

MM. Bell, according to Snelling; we have not seen one.

Durham pennies have one limb of the cross bent to the right like a crozier, the peculiar mark of the Episcopal mint under Hatfield Bp. from 1345 to 1381. The king's style is generally EDWARDVS REX ANGL &c. as on the London pennies. One has an annulet on the king's breast. MB. One has a quatrefoil after the legend and before REX. (312). MB. These read DVREME, but DVNELMIE occurs on some coins. MB. or DVNOLME. MB. the final E in this piece is doubtful; the cross has not the crozier termination. Snelling mentions one which reads VILLA DVREMMIE. See Withy and Ryall, vii. 15.; the reverse has a quatrefoil in centre of cross. VILLA DVRREM. occurs upon a penny of Mr. Cuff's collection, which has the end of the crozier turned to the left, it however reads EDWARDVS, and has the naked shoulders, which fix it to Edward III., though the peculiar form of crozier in general belongs to Bp. Kellow, who died in the time of Edward II. 1316. One in the MB. reads EDWARDVS REX ANGLIE with two crosses after each word; the crozier is turned to the left, an annulet inclosing two pellets is in the centre of the cross, and it reads VILA DVNOL . . . . (313). Another with similar obv. reads VIL--DVRREM. a small cross before and after VILLA, annulet in centre of cross and between the pellets in each angle.

York pennies usually read EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. MM. cross. Quatrefoil in centre of rev. MB. Similar with small open quatrefoil st right of MM. MB. (311). Rev. cross plain, open quatrefoil at left of MM. MB. Another with rev. cross plain reads EDWARD REX ANGL Z FRA. MB.

The Canterbury penny rests upon the authority of Rd. iii. 15. where the reverse is only given, and Withy and Ryal vii. 11.

Halfpennies were struck in London, Canterbury, Reading, York, and resemble the pennies, the style varying a little. London. EDWARDVS REX. Rud. iii. 30. MB. REX. AN. (314). MB.; with a fourth pellet in the first quarter, MB.; or in the fourth quarter and at the side of the crown. MB.; or a small cross in the first quarter MB.; or in the third quarter, MB.; or a star after AN. and before LONDON. or, a small cross at each side of the crown. MB. REX ANG. MB. LONDONIENSIS. CUFF..

Canterbury: EDWARDVS REX. Sn. ii. 12. followed by Rud. Sup. i. 38. we have not seen such a coin.

Reading: EDWARDVS REX. a scallop shell in one angle instead of pellets. (315.) MB REX AN. same type, a star after AN. and VILLA. MB.

York: We have not seen any such, but Snelling says that Edward III. struck pieces of each kind except farthings.

We have not seen any halfpence of Berwick or Bristol which we could venture to assign to Edward III.

We assign to this king farthings, without drapery on the king's shoulders, which read EDWARDVS REX CIVITAS LONDON., MB. Rud. iii. 31. Sup. 2. xvi. 14. or REX AN. Sn. ii. 11. MB. or REX. A. with a star after A and before LONDON. MB. Rud. iii. 27. See Edward I. p. 96. one according to Rud. iii. 32. reads LONDONIENSIS but we have not seen such. Some were struck at York, reading EDWARDVS REX. CIVITAS EBORACI. Mr. STAUNTON of Longbridge near Warwick had one, which he parted with to Mr. Woolston, whose collection was purchased by Mr. Young; into whose hands it afterwards passed we have not been able to trace.

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