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The Gold Coins of England

Robert Lloyd Kenyon, 1884
Elizabeth (1558-1602)

Table of Contents

ELIZABETH, 1558 TO 1602.

Elizabeth succeeded to the throne on the 17th Nov. 1558. She was in the habit afterwards of boasting that she had restored the coinage to the proper standard; but the boast was true only as regarded the silver coins. The old standard, 23 cts. 3½ grs. fine gold to ½ gr. alloy, had been the only one used for the gold coins during Mary’s reign; but Elizabeth, by her first proclamation, dated Dec. 31st, 1558, re-introduced a baser currency by ordering a gold coinage similar in all respects to that of 1552, namely sovereigns, angels, and angelets of the old standard at 30s, 10s, and 5s, respectively, and sovereigns, half-sovereigns, crowns, and half-crowns of “crown” gold, viz., 22 cts. fine, at 20s, 10s, 5s, and 2s 6d respectively, and all of the same weight as in 1552.

In the indenture of the 8th Nov., 1560, ryals of the old standard at 15s each were added to the list, and half-crowns were not mentioned, though they nevertheless continued to be coined; and on the 4th of March, 1561-2, the nominal value of all the current coins, both of gold and silver, was reduced. Of those of fine gold, the sovereign was now to be current for 20s, the ryal for 10s, the angel for 6s 8d, and the angelet for 3s 4d; and of crown gold, the sovereign for 13s 4d, the half-sovereign for 6s 8d, the crown for 3s 4d, and the half-crown for 1s 8d. By the indenture, however, of the 19th April, 1572, made with John Lonison, only three gold coins were to be made, namely, angels, angelets, and quarter angels, of the old standard and the same weight as before, and these were to be current at their old values of 10s, 5s, and 2s 6d respectively.

On the 19th Dec., 1578, a commission was made out, authorizing Lonison slightly to debase the coins, making the gold 23 cts. 3¼ grs. fine instead of 23 cts. 3½ grs.; and a pound weight of gold, which had hitherto been coined into £36 by tale, was now to be coined into £36. 1s 10½d so that the angel would now weigh 79 61/77 grs. instead of 80 grs. In 1582-3, however, by an indenture with Richard Martin, the old standard and weight were restored, and the coinage was to be as ordered in 1572, and in 1583-4 half-sovereigns and sovereigns, under the name of nobles of 15s a-piece, and double nobles of 30s a-piece, were again ordered to be coined. In 1592 or 1593 another commission was granted to Martyn (now Sir Richard, and spelling his name with a y) to recommence the coinage of “crown” gold as ordered at the beginning of the reign.

On the 29th of July, 1601, the weight of the money both of gold and silver was somewhat reduced, a commission being granted to Sir R. Martyn and his son for making 73 instead of 72 angels out of a pound weight of gold of the old standard, and 33½ instead of 33 sovereigns out of a pound of crown gold, and the other coins in proportion, all retaining the same nominal value as they had had before.

The following is a description of the coins which were struck by virtue of these several indentures and commissions. We have enumerated only the coins we actually know to exist, but the list might no doubt be made more complete.

SOVEREIGNS. 1558 to 1561. Value 30s. Weight 240 grs. Standard fineness. Type as before; obv., queen seated on throne, crowned and robed, holding sceptre and globe, back of the throne chequered, jewelled sides, column at each side supporting ornamented cross, portcullis under queen’s feet. The tressure round the field is divided by the back of the throne. Rev, square shield bearing arms of France and England quarterly on a large double rose within a double tressure of ten arches, all within the inner circle. 1. MM lis. ELIZABETH : D: G. ANG.: FRA. Z: HIB: REGINA: Rev. A : DNO. FACTV. EST: ISTV. Z : EST: MIRABI. IN: OCV. NRI MB. 2. MM cross crosslet. ELIZABETH: D. G. ANG. FRA. ET HIBE. REGINA:. Rev. A : DNO. FACTV. EST. ISTVD : ET. EST. MIRAB. IN: OCVLIS. NRIS. On this coin, but not on the previous one, a chain hangs down on each side of the portcullis under the queen’s feet. (83) MB.

Between 1561 when the value of the sovereign of fine gold was reduced to 20s, and 1572 when the mint ceased to be authorized to make sovereigns at all, none but those of “crown gold,” afterwards described, seem to have been struck.

1584 to 1601. Value, weight and fineness as in 1558. Type as before, except that the tressure on the obverse is not divided by the back of the throne, but only by the queen’s head. There is a chain from each side of the portcullis, but not exactly like that on the coin with MM cross-crosslet. MM : A : ELIZABETH D. G. ANG. FRA. ET : HIB. REGINA Rev. MM . A. A. DNO. FACTV. EST. ISTVD. ET. EST. MIRAB. IN. OCVLIS. NRS MB. MM scallop; as last, without the dot on each side of the reverse MM; MB. Or having the sides of the back of the throne ornamented with lis instead of jewels, annulets instead of dots within the chequers on the back, one dot after each word on obv., and first four and last on rev.; MB. Or reading NRIS, sides of back of throne ornamented with annulets, dots within the chequers, one dot after obv. MM and after each word on both sides. MB. MM crescent; like A but reading OCVL, sides of back of throne ornamented with annulets, one dot each side of obv. MM and between each word. MB. The MM on rev, is struck over a scallop. MM ton; like A but reading OCVL, dot after each word except Ang and Istud. MB. Rud. ix. 8.

We know of none struck after 1600.

SOVEREIGNS. 1561 to 1572. Value 13s 4d. Weight 174 6/11 grs. Fineness 22 cts. The coinage of sovereigns of crown gold was authorized in 1558, but none appear to have been actually struck before 1561-2, when their value was reduced from 20s to 13s 4d. They are of a type very different from that of the coins of fine gold, having on the obverse the queen’s bust to left, crowned, with ruff and ermine mantle, within an inner circle formed of a single line and touched only by the breast of the bust. Rev. Shield, slightly garnished, crowned, bearing arms of France and England, between the letters E R, within an inner circle which is pierced by the top of the crown. MM rose. Legends ELIZABETH : D. G. ANG. FRAN. ET : HIB. REGINA. Rev. IHS. AVTEM : TR.ANS. PER: MEDIV. ILLOR. IBAT. Rud. x. 11.

1592 to 1601. Value 20s. Weight 174 6/11 grs. Fineness 22 cts. In 1572 the coinage of crown gold was stopped, but it was restored in 1592. The sovereigns subsequently coined are like the former ones in general type, but the queen’s bust is much larger and reaches down to the inner circle, which is pierced above by her crown. There is no ermine mantle, but the dress is richly ornamented; the hair flows down over both shoulders, the crown on both sides has high pointed arches, and the E and R on the reverse are smaller than on the earlier coins. The inner circle on both sides is beaded instead of being a mere line. Legends ELIZABETH : D ° G ° ANG ° FRA ° ET : HIB ° REGINA ° Rev. SCVTVM : FIDE : PROTEGET EAM ° MM obv lion and ton, rev, ton. (84) MB. The lion MM belongs to the years 1566 and 1567, the ton to 1592-5; how they come to be united on this coin is difficult to understand. MM ton; dot after each word on obv., two after Et, rev. as last. MB. MM woolpack, annulet after each word. MB. See Rud. x. 3, which reads Hi. MM obv. woolpack, rev, key; dot after each word on obv., two after Elizabeth, D, and Et, annulet after each word on rev. MB. MM key, same, but two dots after Elizabeth, Et, and Hib, one after every other word on both sides. MB. MM anchor, as last, but ornaments on dress a little different. MB. MM 0 (signifying the date 1600), dot after every word, dress not so elaborately ornamented. MB.

1601-2. Value 20s. Weight 171 63/67 grs. Fineness 22 cts. Type and legends as before, dress as on the coin with MM 0, dot after each word. MM 1: (for 1601), MB. Rud. x. 10. MM 2: (for 1602), MB. The sovereigns of crown gold, though less elaborate in design, are better executed than those of the old standard, are much neater in appearance, and have a graining outside the legend to the edge of the coin, in order to show at once if the coin has been clipped. Their edges, however, are not milled, and their mint-marks are those of the hammered money, to which series all the sovereigns of this reign belong.

RYALS. 1560 to 1572, and 1584 to 1601. Value 15s or 10s. Weight 120 grs. Standard fineness. These, which were in fact the half-sovereigns of the old standard, were first ordered in 1560, were reduced to the value of 10s in 1561-2, were ordered not to be struck in 1572, but were restored at 15s each in 1584. The only specimens we have seen, however, seem to have been struck about the year 1584. Their type is like that of previous ryals. Obv. queen standing in a ship, three-quarters to left, crowned, sceptre in right hand, globe in left, wearing a ruff. The ship has a very high quarter-deck, from which rises a mast with furled sail on yard-arm and three ropes. Mast behind queen, yard-arm over her head, two ropes to it from prow, three from stern, flag at prow bearing letter E. Rose on side of ship, which is adorned, on each side of the rose, with a lion between two lis. Rev, as Mary’s ryal, with a trefoil in each spandril of the tressure. 1. MM on rev, only .A. Legends ELIZABET. ANGL. MA. D. G. P C. A. L. REGINA. Rev. IHS. AVT. TRANSIENS. PER. MEDIV. ILLORVM. IBAT. N (85) MB. 2. Similar with only two ropes to the mast on the quarter-deck, three from prow to yard-arm, ELIZAB. D. G. ANG. FR. Z. M. PR. C’ A. L’ REGINA. Rev. IHS. AVT. TRANSIENS. PER. MEDIV. ILLORVM. IBAT MB. Rud. x. 1. 3. Type as 1, but obv. legend ELIZAB. D. G. ANG. FR. ET. HIB REGINA. Rev, legend as 2. MB. See Rud. ix. 7. 4. As last, but MM scallop? MB. 5. One said to have MM crescent, “very fine,” was sold at the Whitbourn sale in 1869 for £22, and one with the same MM from the Jackson collection in 1872, for £9. 7s 6d. Num. Chr., N. S., ix. 289; xii. 220. All very rare.

The legends on the obverses of the two first of these coins have not been explained. The N at the end of the reverse legend of No 1 may be compared with the NE at the end of the reverse legend on Henry VI’s sovereign (46), but we cannot explain its meaning. It may possibly be a mint-mark here, but it does not appear as such on any other coin.

HALF-SOVEREIGNS. 1558 to 1572. Value 10s or 6s 8d. Weight 87 3/11 grs. Fineness 22 cts. Not milled. These are in type like the first sovereigns of “crown” gold, except that the queen is dressed in armour instead of an ermine mantle, and that the bust extends nearly down to the inner circle, which is beaded. The reverse is also similar, but the shield is plain, the crown placed higher in the coin, and the inner circle beaded. MM cross-crosslet. ELIZABET : D. G. ANG. FRA. ET. HI. REGINA Rev. SCVTVM. FIDEI. PROTEGET : EAM Rud. x. 2. MB. MM rose, same but only one dot after Elizabeth, two after each word on rev. (86) MB. MM portcuilis, as cross-crosslet but FR, two dots after Elizabeth and Et and between words on rev. MB. MM coronet, as last, but SCVTV’. MB. Or FR., SCVTVM. EVANS.

1561 to 1572. Value 6d 8d. Weight and fineness as before. Milled. In 1561, about the same time that the nominal value of the coins was reduced, a new process of coining, by means of the mill and screw, was introduced into England from France, apparently by a Frenchman called Eloye Mestrell. The old process had been to place the blank piece of metal upon a die firmly fixed below, and to place another die above it, and then to raise the impressions upon it by striking the upper die with a hammer. The improvement consisted in attaching the upper die to a screw, so as to bring it down on the metal below at once with greater force and greater accuracy, and at the same time the edges of many of the coins so struck were marked with straight lines or “milled,” probably by means of including the blanks in a collar so marked, slightly wider than themselves, to the size of which they would expand on being struck with the upper die, and which might be opened to take them out. The new process was used for a time concurrently with the old, but it was not approved of by the officers of the mint, and was but little used after 1572, until it was re-introduced in the reign of Charles II.

The milled half-sovereigns are of similar type to the hammered ones, but the queen’s bust is larger, and her armour much more richly ornamented, and there is no inner circle on either side. MM star. ELIZABETH. D. G. ANG. FR. ET. HIB. REGINA Rev. SCVTVM. FIDEI. PROTEGET. EAM. Dot before rev. MM, edge plain. MB. Or with armour slightly different, reading FRA. MB. Or with armour very slightly different again, reading FRA, and having a slight graining on the edge, and the queen’s crown frosted. (87) MB. Or with different bust, face and crown smaller, crown on both obv. and rev, has high pointed arches, more of bust shown, much richer dress, shield on reverse larger, coin large, workmanship altogether much better, edge grained; legends as before, with FRA. EVANS. MM lis, like the first with MM star, but armour rather different, FRA, no dot after Eam or before rev. MM, edge milled, coin smaller. MB. Rud. x. 7. Rare.

1592 to 1601. Value 10s. Weight and fineness as before. Not milled. Type similar to the first with MM star, but dress different, beaded inner circle on both sides. MM ton. .ELIZABETH. D. G. ANG. FRA. ET. HI. REGINA. Rev. .SCVTVM. FIDEI. PROTEGET. EAM. MB.

With much larger bust, greater profusion of hair, crowns on both sides have high double arches and pierce inner circle. Rich armour. Shield on rev, smaller. Workmanship good. MM ton. ELIZAB. D. G. ANG. FRA. ET: HIB. REGINA Rev. SCVTVM: FIDEI: PROTEGET: EAM. MB. Or reading REGIN•, one dot after each word on rev. (88) MB. Or with bust rather smaller, shield on rev, rather larger, crown over it more like that on the half-sovereigns with MM cross-crosslet, and legends same. MM woolpack. Dot after each word. MB. Rud. x. 4. MM key, ELIZAB, HIB. MB.

1601-2. Value 10s. Weight 85 65/67 grs. Fineness 22 cts. Type and legends as the last, dot after each word. MM 1: MB.

ANGELS. 1558 to 1578. Value 10s or 6s 8d. Weight 80 grs. Standard fineness. Type as usual, the ship on the reverse is sailing to the right, and has two ropes from the prow, three from the stern. E and rose at sides of cross. MM lis. ELIZABETH: D. G. ANG. FRA. Z. HIB. REG. Rev. A: DNO. FACTYM. EST. ISTVD. Z. EST. MIRABI. Thin plain inner circle on both sides. EVANS. MM lis, ELIZABETH: D. G: ANG. FRA. Z. HIB. REGI. Rev. A. DNO. FACTVM. EST. ISTVD. Z. EST. MIRABI. Beaded inner circle on obv., thin plain one on rev. MB. On all the rest of the angels the inner circle on both sides is beaded. MM cross-crosslet. ELIZABETH. D. G. ANG. FRA. ET. HIB. REGINA. Rev. A. DNO. FACTVM. EST. ISTVD: ET EST. MIRABI. MB. Rud. ix. 9 reads FR, and the stops on rev, are different. MM coronet; obv. as last, but reading FR and with three dots after Regina. Rev, as last, with one dot after Dno, two after every other word. MB. MM ermine. ELIZABETH: D. G. ANG. FR. ET: HI. REGINA Rev. A: DNO: FACTVM: EST: ISTVD: ET: EST: MIRABI. Ship sailing to left instead of right. (89) MB. Or reading HIB. MB. MM acorn, same, reading HI, but with no stops before Istud. MB. This specimen is countermarked, but with what arms is not clear. MM cinquefoil, same as ermine, reading HI, only one dot after Dno. MB.

1578 to 1582. Value 10s. Weight 79 61/77 grs. Fineness 23 cts.grs. Type as before, ship is always sailing to the right. MM plain cross, legends as ermine with HI. MB. Or with only one dot after Factum, Est, Et, and Est. MB. MM sword, legends as ermine with HI. MB. MM bell, same, MB. This last may have been struck either before or after the restoration of the old standard, as the bell MM was used from 1582 to 1584.

1582 to 1601. Value 10s. Weight 80 grs. Standard fineness. Type as before, ship sailing to right. MM A. ELIZABETH: D. G. ANG. FR. ET: HI. REGINA. Rev. A: DNO: FACTVM: EST: ISTVD: ET: EST: MIRABI. MB. MM scallop, same, but only one dot after A. MB. MM crescent, same as the last. MB. MM hand, as A, with only one dot after A. MB. MM ton, as A, with no dot after Regina, nor before Istud, and reading, by a blunder, MIRARI for Mirabile; with no dot after it. MB. MM key, as A, with only one dot after each word on obv., and after A on rev., and the ship has no bowsprit. MB. MM 0, as A, but no stops after the last four words on obv., HIB for HI, no stops before Istud, the ship on the reverse is smaller than usual. MB.

We do not know of any angels struck after the reduction of weight in 1601.

ANGELETS. These correspond in value, weight, and fineness, with the angels, and are of exactly the same type, except that there is only one rope to the mast from the prow, and two from the stern, and that the ship is always sailing to the right.

1558 to 1578. Value 5s or 3s 4d. Weight 40 grs. Standard fineness. MM cinquefoil. ELIZABETH: D: G: ANG: FR: ET HI REGINA Rev. A. DNO. FACTVM. EST: ISTVD ET. EST MIRA: EVANS.

1578 to 1582. Value 5s. Weight 39 66/77 grs. Fineness 23 cts.grs. MM plain cross. ELIZABETH: D: G: ANG: FR: ET: HI: REGINA Rev. A: DNO: FACTVM: EST: ISTVD: ET : EST: MIRA (90) MB. MM sword. ELIZABETH: D. G. ANG. FR. ET. HI. REGINA Rev, as cross. MB. MM bell, as sword. MB.

1582 to 1601. Value 5s. Weight 40 grs. Standard fineness. MM scallop. ELIZAB D. G. ANG FR. ET HIB REGI Rev. A DNO FACTVM EST ISTVD ET EST MIRA Rud ix. 10. MM crescent, as sword. MB. MM hand. ELIZABETH D G ANG FR ET HIB REGINA, no stops. Rev. A. DNO FACTV. EST. ISTVD. ET. EST. MIRAB. MB.

We do not know of any later angelets than these. The hand MM was superseded by the ton in 1592.

CROWNS. 1558 to 1572. Value 5s or 3s 4d. Weight 43 7/11 grs. Fineness 22 cts. Not milled. Type like the earliest half-sovereigns of “crown” gold, p. 126. MM. cross crosslet. ELIZABETH : D. G. ANG. FR. ET. HI. REGINA Rev. SCVTVM : FIDEI : PROTEGET : EAM MB. Or HIB. EVANS. MM lion, same but bust smaller, HI., PRTEGET: MB. MM coronet, like the first but AN, two dots after Et. MB.

1561 to 1572. Value 3s 4d. Weight 43 7/11 grs. Fineness 22 cts. Milled. Type as the hammered crowns, but bust and shield both larger, dress richer, crown over shield somewhat different, no inner circle, MM star, ELIZABETH. D. G. ANG. FRA. ET. HIB. REGINA Rev. SCVTVM. FIDEI. PROTEGET. EAM. Edge plain. Rud, x. 8. MB. MM lis, type like the hammered crowns, but crown on rev, rather smaller, plain inner circle on rev. only. Legends as last but Z. HIB. REGI, dot before rev. MM. Edge plain. (91) MB. Or with edge grained, exactly like the milled half-sovereign MM lis, but reading FIDIEI. MB. These milled crowns are rare, and have been sold for from £10 to £15. 15s each.

1592 to 1601. Value 5s. Weight 43 7/11 grs. Fineness 22 cts. Type like the corresponding half-sovereigns, p. 128, with an inner circle which is pierced by the crown. MM ton. ELIZAB. D. G. ANG. FRA. ET. HIB. REGI. Rev. SCVTVM : FIDEI: PROTEGET: EAM MB. MM woolpack, same, but with only one dot between words on rev. and reading EA for Eam. MB. Or REG for Regi. Rud. x. 5. Or FR. for Fra, with MM at end instead of beginning of obv. legend. THORBURN. MM. 0, as last but FR. ET. HI : REGINA, dot after Ea. MB.

1601-2. Value 5s. Weight 42 66/67 grs. Fineness 22 cts. Like the first with MM woolpack. MM 2: (92) MB.

HALF-CROWNS. 1558 to 1572. Value 2s 6d or 1s 8d. Weight 21 9/11 grs. Fineness 22 cts. Not milled. Type like the corresponding half-sovereigns. Legends ELIZABETH: D. G. AN. FR. ET : HI. REGINA Rev. SCVTVM: FIDEI : PROTEGET : EAM MM cross-crosslet. THORBURN. MM lion. MB. MM coronet. MB. MM castle, same but reading ANG. EVANS.

1561 to 1572. Value 1s 8d. Weight 21 9/11 grs. Fineness 22 cts. Milled. Type like the corresponding half-sovereigns, p. 127. Legends as the last half-crowns but ANG. FRA. ET. HIB., one dot between each word. MM star. MB. MM lis. MB. Rud. x. 9. These coins, though struck by the mill, have the edges plain. Rare.

1592 to 1601. Value 2s 6d. Weight 21 9/11 grs. Fineness 22 cts. Type as corresponding half-sovereigns. Legends ELIZAB. D. G. ANG. FR. ET. HIB. REGI. Rev. SCVTVM : FIDE : PROTEGET: EAM. MM ton. MB. Or with MM ton on rev. oniy, two dots after Et. MB. MM woolpack, as last. MB. Rud. x. 6, which reads HI, PROTEGE. MM 0, as ton, but ET. HI:, only one dot after each word on rev. (93) MB.

1601-2. Value 2s 6d. Weight 21 33/67 grs. Fineness 22 cts. Type and legends like the first with MM ton, one dot between words on rev. MM 2: MB. Or with EA for EAM. THORBURN.

QUARTER ANGELS. These correspond in every respect with the angelets. They are not mentioned in the indentures for the coinage before 1572, but a few exist with the rose MM, the date of which is 1565. If these are not patterns, it proves that quarter angels, like half-crowns, were coined under the indenture of 1560 although not mentioned therein. The legends on all are ELIZABETH D G ANG FRANCIE. Rev. ET HIBERNIE REGINA FIDEI.

1558 to 1578. Value 2s 6d or 1s 8d. Weight 20 grs. Standard fineness. MM rose. EVANS. TRORBURN. MM acorn, two dots after Elizabeth, Ang, Regina, and Fidei, one after Et and Hibernie. Rud. ix. 11. MB. MM cinquefoil, two dots after Elizabeth and Ang and every word on rev. MB.

1578 to 1582. Value 2s 6d. Weight 19 73/77 grs. Fineness 23 cts.grs. MM plain cross, two dots between words on obv., one after each word on rev. MB. MM bell, same. MB.

1582 to 1601. Value 2s 6d. Weight 20 grs. Standard fineness. MM A, as cross. MB. MM crescent. EVANS. MM ton, two dots after Elizabeth, one after Ang and between words on rev. (94) MB.

We do not know of any later quarter angels.

Besides the English coins above described, a considerable number of foreign coins had a legal currency in the kingdom during this reign. Those made current by Queen Mary have been already enumerated. On the 9th October, 1560, the current value of the French and Imperial crowns was reduced from 6s 4d to 6s, and that of the Portuguese Pistoletts from 6s 2d to 5s 10d, at which latter value four other coins, namely two of Spain, one of Venice, and one of Florence, were made current under the same name of Pistoletts; but on the 15th November, 1561, the legal currency of all foreign coins except the French crown and the Flemish or Burgundian crown was abolished by proclamation, and on the 4th March the value of these last was reduced to 4s each, at which rate they were continued during the rest of the reign.

In the following list of mint-marks the dates are those which occur in conjunction with the same mint-mark on the sixpences, and other dated silver coins. The mint-marks 0, 1, and 2, of which the first has generally been called an annulet or circle, obviously refer to the date of the year, 1600, 1601, and 1602, in which they were used.

NOT MILLED.
Date Sov.
fine gold.
Sov.
crwn gold.
Ryal. ½ Sov. Angel. Angelet Crown ½ Crown ¼ Angel
Martlet
Fleur-de-lys + +
Cross-crosslet + + + + Thorbrn
Pheon1561-5
Rose1565 Rud. + Evans
Portcullis1566 +
Lion1566-7 + +
Coronet1567-70 + + + +
Castle1569-71 Evans
Ermine1571-3 +
Acorn1573-4 + +
Cinquefoil1573-7 + Evans +
Cross1577-81 + + +
Sword1582 + +
Bell1582-4 + + +
A1582-4 + + + +
Scallop1584-6 + + + Rud.
Crescent1587-9 + Nm.Chr. + + Evans
Hand1590-2 + +
Lion (1566-7) and ton +
Ton1592-5 + + + + + + +
Woolpack1594-6 + + + +
Key1595-8 + + +
Anchor1597-1600 +
01600 + + + +
11601-2 + +
21602 + + +

MILLED.
½ Sov. Crown ½ Crown
Star, 1561-6 + + +
Fleur-de-lis, 1567-70 + + +
Mullet pierced, 1570
Castle, 1571
Mullet, 1574-5

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