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An Historical Account of English Money, 3rd Edition

Stephen Martin Leake, Esq, 1793
Charles II

Table of Contents

Charles II. A.D. 1648-9.

[Note: Original spelling style has not been preserved in this transcription. f is rendered in the modern s, etc. ie, Majefty and Reverfe are presented as Majesty and Reverse resepectively.]

The first Money [Thoresby, No 426.] that bore the name of King Charles the Second, was coined by Colonel John Morris, Governor of Pontefract Castle, round which is inscribed, CAROLVS. SECVNDVS. 1648. with the standard in the middle tower, between P. C. Reverse, C. R. crowned. DVM. SPIRO. SPERO.

Another has a Crown, with this inscription in the field under it, HANC. DEVS. DEIT. 1648. Circumscribed CAROL. II. D. G. MAG. B. F. ET. H. REX. Reverse, the castle, with P. C. above it, and this legend, POST. MORTEM. PATRIS. PRO. FILIO.

A third octangular, CAROLVS, &c. Reverse, the castle, P. C. having a cannon pointing out of the left side, and on the other, OBS. Weight, three pennyweights, three grains.

These Pontefract pieces are the only Coins of King Charles the Second before the Restoration: for the day the father was murdered, an act of the Commons passed to disinherit the son. They voted the House of Lords useless, monarchy abolished, and England a commonwealth. Every thing was altered that bore any marks of royalty; a new great seal was appointed, and Money ordered to be coined in the name of the Parliament and Commons of England.

They had before (as has been observed) coined Money with the King's stamp, both gold and silver, distinguished by the letter (P.) and, in September 1647, and ordinance [Rushworth, pt. 4, vol. 2, p. 801.] passed both houses, declaring, that thenceforth no clipped Money should be current or payable in the kingdom, but to be esteemed as bullion; but, to prevent any inconvenience to those in remote parts of the kingdom, that could not sell them but at under rates, this clipped Money, for three months, was to be allowed of in payment, at four Shillings and Tenpence per ounce; but, at the same time, all persons were to take notice, that such clipped Money would yield in London four Shillings and Elevenpence per ounce, at the least. By this means great quantities [Violet, p. 48.] were sold to goldsmiths, who, instead of melting it, sold the same again at five Shillings and Sixpence, five Shillings and Eightpence, and six Shillings per ounce, which at the Tower would make but five Shillings: and this they made a trade of, buying and selling it twenty times over: whereas, if all persons exchanging clipped money, had been enjoined, under a penalty, to see it cut in pieces, this inconvenience might have been avoided. And though twenty millions [Violet, p. 48.] was coined within twenty-five years, according to the mint books, it was almost all transported and melted down; so that weighty gold was as precious in the kingdom as diamonds.

The commonwealth coined gold pieces of twenty Shillings, ten Shillings, and five Shillings value, of the same standard and weight as those of King Charles the First. These have on one side an antique shield, with St. George's cross for England, encircled with a palm and a laurel branch, circumscribed, THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND. Reverse, two antique shields conjoined; in the first St. George's cross as before, in the other the harp for Ireland, (as upon the reverse of their new great seal,) and above the shield the value in figures, XX. X. or V. The legend, GOD WITH VS; which was the word at the battle of Lutzen, wherein the famous Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, was killed. After, the legend follows the date, 1649, 1650, 1651, 1652, 1653, and even to the Restoration; for I have seen both a XX. and X. Shilling Piece of 1660. A sun the mint-mark.

The silver Money bears the same stamp, from a Crown to a Sixpence, having the value in figures above the double shield, viz. V. IIVI. XII/ and VI. from the year 1649, to 1654.

The Twopences and Pennies have II. and I. above the arms, but without any inscription on either side.

The Halfpennies only a shield with St. George's cross on one side, and a shield with a harp on the other.

There are likewise milled Half Crowns, Shillings, and Sixpences of 1651, with graining upon the outer edge, bearing the same stamp as the Commonwealth hammered Money; and this is the first compleat silver milled Money, that of Queen Elizabeth and King Charles being only marked upon the flat edge.

Blondeau's Half Crown has likewise the same stamp, but this inscription added upon the rim, TRVTH. & PEACE. 1651. PETRVS. BLONDAEVS. INVENTOR. FECIT.

Another of 1651, with the same inscription upon the rim as was used upon the Commonwealth great seal, which, according to Whitlock, [P. 381] ws the fancy of Henry Martin; viz. IN THE THIRD YEAR OF FREDOM, BY GODS BLESSINGS RESTORED. But whether this was done by Blondeau, or the State minters in the Tower, I do not know, but most probably the latter.

This Peter Blondeau [The Answer of the Corporation of Moniers to the Representation of Peter Blondeau, folio, printed for the Corporation of Moniers, 1653.] was a Frenchman, and (as he says [The Answer of the Corporation of Moniers to the Representation of Peter Blondeau, folio, printed for the Corporation of Moniers, 1653.]) the Council of State having seen patterns of Coins made by him, sent for him to London in September 1649; a while after he made proposals to the committee of the Council of State for the mint, to coin the Money of the Commonwealth by a new invention of his own, not then practicsed in any State in the world, which method would prevent counterfeiting, casting, washing, and clipping, being to be marked on both flad sides, and also about the thick edge; and after some time, having given specimens of his art, his proposals were approved; whereupon the provost and moniers of the mint in the Tower, enraged to be supplanted by a foreigner, made their petition to the Council of State, setting forth, that Blondeau's method was an old invention, which they knew as well as him, desiring to be put upon the trial with him; and if the State would have milled Money for the future, they proposed, that whereas thay had now two Shillings and Fivepence for making the pound Troy of gold into Coin, by the hammer, and the State fifteen Shillings and Ninepence the pound Troy for working the silver, they would make fair milled Money for Twelvepence the pound weight of silver, as fair as any Money current in Christendom, and milled gold Money, as fair and beautiful as the Louis and Cardeques of France, for five Shillings the pound weight, which was under the price proposed by Blondeau.

Upon this proposal the Moniers were directed (in May and June 1651) to make some patterns as broad as a Shilling, a Half Crown, and a Twenty Shilling Piece of gold, in a mill, the motto about the edges, TRVTH. AND. PEACE. And some of the same pieces to have a graining about the edges, according to Queen Elizabeth's patterns of Mill-money, and to present the same the third of July following, that so the committee might see the pieces, and consider what was fittest to present to the Council of State, for the more handsome making the Monies of the Commonwealth.

Accordingly, David Ramadage, one of the moniers, made a dozen pieces as specimens of gold and silver, with letters about the edge, and with a double graining, fairer and more exact than Blondeau's pieces, which he had made to the number of three hundred, Half Crowns, Shllings, Sixpences, and some gold pieces. Upon this disappointment, Blondeau dispersed a memorial in his own defence, charging the provost and moniers with scandalous practices. To this they replied, and the controversy continued till 1652. But, in the mean time, Blondeau being detected of coining Money privately at a house in the Strand, and making counterfeit Half Crowns, Shillings, and Sixpences, plated with silver, the committee presently ordered all his coining tools and irons to be seized, and sent to the Tower, which was done, and the moniers desired leave to indict him for treason. What became of him afterwards does not appear; perhaps by this means having got all the information they wanted, they let him go quietly back to France, after having attended the pleasure of the State three years and a half. Doubtless, the moniers were not at his first coming so well skilled in the mill as Blondeau; but that he was the inventor, as he stiles himself, either of the graining, or inscription upon the rim, was false; for the former is seen upon some Coins of Queen Elizabeth's milled Money; and Le Blanc mentions [P. 294, 296.] a Frank of Henry the Fourth, and a Quart-D'ecu of Louis the Thirteenth, with an inscription upon the rim.

It is certain, the Money coined upon this occasion, is the first English Money with an inscription upon the edge; but how far this was owing to Blondeau, is doubtful, since Symons's Coins of Oliver, which were struck soon after, exceeded any that had been coined before; though, by not bringing this milled Money into common use, it is evident the mill was not brought to perfection, and therefore the hammered Money was continued to the Restoration.

There were several designs for copper Farthings. One has the antique shield with the cross under a garland, ENGLANDS FARTHING. Reverse, the harp, FOR NECESSARY. CHANGE. Another has the cross and harp quarterly upon the reverse.

A Farthing with the like shield and cross, without garland, FARTHING-TOKENS. OF. ENGLAND. Reverse, the shield with the harp, FOR. NECESSITY. OF CHANGE. 1649, and has graining upon the outer edge.

A Bristol Farthing with the arms of Bristol, 1652.

In New England Money was likewise coined. This has on one side a tree, circumscribed MASATHVSETS. IN. Reverse, NEW. ENGLAND. AN. DO. and in the area the date 1652, and under it the value XXII. The Sixpence has VI. The Treepences have III. but want the word IN. on one side, and AN. DO. on the other.

The Twopences have II. Of these are various sorts, some with a different tree, others octangular, of different sizes, and coined in different years, but all bearing the same date, 1652, when only they had the liberty of a mint.

Of Maryland is a beautiful Shilling, having on one side the bust of the Lord Baltimore, proprietor of that country, in profile, bare headed, CAECILIVS. DNS. TERRAE. MARIAE. &CT. Reverse, an escocheon of his arms, viz. Pally of six, a bend countercharged, and on the sides the figures XII/ for the value, under an arched crown; (whereas Barons had not coronets till the thirteenth of Charles the Second,) and with a suitable motto, CRESCITE. ET. MVLTIPLICAMINI.

Mr. Thoreseby [No 446, 447.] mentions a Groat of the same mint, and a copper Coin of the same place like the Shilling, with VI. which, no doubt, was the stamp of the Sixpence, for I have seen that of the Shilling likewise in copper.

After the battle of Worcester, the Parliament growing jealous of Cromwell's greatness, he resolved to dissolve them, and take the power in his own hands, and a lucky incident is said [Violet's Appeal to Caesar, 4vo. Lond. 1660, p.38, 45.] to have favoured his design; three Hamburgh ships, viz. the Sampson, Salvador, and St. George, had been stopped some time before, with near three hundred thousand pounds on board in silver, upon suspicion that it was the property of the Dutch. This was such a favourable circumstance as Cromwell wanted; he sent for copies of the bills of loading, and the value of the silver, and could not sleep till he had got it in the Tower; for which purpose he detached a gaurd of soldiers on board the ships to seize it, and if he had not got this Money into his hand (says the author) he durst not have dissolved the Parliament. Soon after this, he assumed the title of Protector, which was confirmed by Parliament, though he was not publickly invested with that office, till 1657: but that was merely form, for he had all the regalia of an absolute price from the time he assumed the title of Protector, and coined Money with his effigies, some of it bearing date in 1656, which was the year before his investiture, though the greater part is of the year 1658.

The Coins of the Protector are Twenty-Shilling and Fifty-Shilling Pieces of gold, and it is said there was a dye prepared for Ten-Shilling Pieces. And of silver, Crowns, Half-Crowns, Shillings, and Sixpences, all of the same weight and fineness as the Commonwealth Money. They are an excellent dye, done by the masterly hand of Symonds, exceeding any thing of that kind, that had been done since the Romans, and in like manner he appears thereon, his bust, Caesar-like, laureat, looking to the right, with whiskers, and a small tuft upon the under lip, OLIVAR. D. G. R. P. ANG. SCO HIB. &C. PRO. Reverse, under the royal crown, a shield of arms, quartering in the first and fourth quarters, St. George's cross for England; second, St. Andrew's cross for Scotland; third, the harp for Ireland; and his paternal arms in an escutcheon in the centre, viz. a lion rampant; legend PAX. QVAERITVR. BELLO, 1656, or 1658. They are all milled Money, with curious graining upon the outer edge. But the Fifty-Shilling Piece, Crown, and Half Crown have this circumscription upon the rim, or thick edge of the Coin; HAS. NISI. PERITVRVS. MIHI. ADIMAT. NEMO. The Crown of 1658 has a flaw or crack across the neck.

There is likewise a copper Farthing, with the Protector's bust laureat. OLIVER. PROT. ANG. SCO. IRL. Reverse, three pillers joined together, and on the top of them, the cross of St. George, the cross of St. Andrew, and the harp for the three kingdoms. THVS. VNITED. INVINCIBLE. The same device is seen upon a small silver medal of the Commonwealth, of 1648, and likewise upon a copper piece, which probably was a design for a Farthing.

But nothwithstanding these Coins of Oliver, those of the Commonwealth were continued to be coined till the Restoration, which Oliver could do no less than permit to carry on the farce, as he had submitted to receive his authority from the Parliament; so that the Coin exhibited the greatest contradiction in government, a tyrant and a commonwealth, at the same time acting under one and the same authority.

It is said, [Tindal's Rapin, p. 467. Notes.] there was levied from the year 1641 to 1647, above forty millions in Money, and Money's worth, and that the Parliament raised in all upon the nation, during the course of the civil war, and afterwards, above ninety-five million, five hundred, and twelve thousand pounds.

After the restoration of King Charles, anno 1660, the State's or Commonwealth Money was called in, both gold and silver, and other Money coined, of the same standard and value as his father's, viz. Crown gold of twenty-two carrats fine, and sterling silver; which standards have been constantly used ever since.

The next thing to be taken into consideration, was the melting down the Coin, which had exhausted the best Money, and left little else than light, clipped, and counterfeit Money for the current use of the kingdom. This had been owing, in a great measure, to the insufficiency of the laws, the statute of Richard the Second extending only to Groats, which were the largest silver Coins then in use, whereby the force of the statute was eluded, and Coins above the value of a Groat were melted down by goldsmiths and others. It was therefore now enacted, [St. 13 & 14, Car. 2, ch. 31.] That no person should melt any of the silver Money of the realm, under the penalty of forfeiting double the value, and six months imprisonment; and if he was a freeman of any corporation, to be disfranchised. But the best security against this practice was coining the milled Money in 1662, which proved more effectual than all the laws that had hitherto been made. The next year, in an act [St. 15, Car. 2, cap. 7, sect. 12.] for the encouragement of trade, it was made lawful to export all sorts of foreign Coin or bullion, of gold and silver, in regard that several considerable and advantageous trades could not be carried on without Money or bullion; and that it was found, by experience, that they were carried in greatest abundance (as to a common market) to such places as gave free liberty for exporting the same; and that it served the better to keep in, and increase the current Coins of the kingdom.

In the eighteenth of Charles the Second, an act [St. 18 Car. II. cap. 5. 25 Car. II. cap. 8.] passed for the encouraging the coinage. His Majesty had been pleased to bear out of his revenue, half the charge of the coinage of silver Money; for the preventing of which charge to his Majesty, and to encourage persons to bring gold and silver to the mint to be coined, it was enacted, that every person bringing any foreign Coin or bullion to the mint to be coined, should have the same essayed and melted down, without any charge or defalcation, and for every pound Troy of crown gold, or sterling silver, should receive the like weight in coined Money, of crown or standard gold, and of sterling or standard silver; and if the bullion, so brought, was finer or coarser than crown gold, or standard silver, so much more, or less should be allowed as it was better or worse, and without any charge of coinage, or without any undue preference in the coinage: and to defray the charges of the mint and the coinage, a duty was laid upon wines, &c. with a clause for paying six hundred pounds a year to Dame Barbara Villiers, who, by letters patent dated the twentieth of August, in the twelfth year of his Majesty's reigh, had a grant of Twopence by tale out of every pound Troy of silver Monies, for twenty-one years. Very great quantities of gold and silver were brought to the mint by means of this act, which was therefore continued by the succeeding Princes.

The first Money of King Charles the Second, after his restoration, was cooined by indenture [Lownds, p. 55.] with Sir Ralph Freeman, to be of the same goodness as his father's, both for gold and silver. This was of the hammered sort; for, probably, the minters, who were employed to coin Oliver's milled Money, being under apprehensions of danger, upon the King's restoration, dispersed themselves, with their engines, and it was necessary to set the hammer at work immediately, to supply the place of the Commonwealth Money, which was called in.

The hammered gold Money has the King's bust in armour, looking to the right, with a wig (after the French fashion) laureat, the inscription going quite round the head, CAROLVS. II. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRAN. ET. HIB. REX. Reverse, the arms in an oval shield, crowned, between C. R. Legend, FLORENT. CONCORDIA. REGNA. A crown the mintmark.

The silver hammered Money has the King's bust in like manner, with a laced band, and the crown upon his head instead of the laurel, CAROLVS. II. D. G. MAG. BRI. FRA. ET. HIB. REX. Reverse, the arms in a shield, divided by the old cross, CHRISTO. AVSPICE. REGNO.

The Shilling has XII. behind the head; the Sixpence VI. but there is another sort without the figures, or the inner circle about the head, which comes something nearer the milled Money.

The lesser pieces, from a Groat to a Penny, have the same stamp and mint-mark, with the figures denoting their value, behind the head; but some are without figures; and the titles upon the Penny are abbreviated to M. B. F. & H.

The hammered Money continued in use till 1662, when the mill took place. There was indeed a necessity for some new method of coining, for the hammered Money being made unequal, and uneven, with small engines which might be worked privately, it was impossible to prevent counterfeiting and clipping. Queen Elizabeth had it under consideration in her time, and coined a great deal of Money in the mill, besides some few gold pieces with graining upon the rim. King Charles the First had likewise very good milled Money coined by Briott, and the same, no doubt, would have been farther improved, and established in his time here, as it was in France, had not the rebellion prevented it. But this milled Money of Queen Elizabeth and King Charles the First, had not the graining, or letters upon the rim, whereby, though in some measure it was secured against clipping, it remained still exposed to be lessened and moulded. Afterwards, the mill being perfected and established in France, the Commonwealth sent [Bloneau's Memorial, and the Moniers Answer to Peter Blondeau, 1653, folie.] for Blondeau from thence to coin milled Money here which had taken effect, had it not been prevented by the combination of the hammer-men of the mint, in the same manner as Briott had formerly been served in France. In the mean time the practice of clipping was grown so bad, that the Money was reduced to less than half the intrinsic value. But the legal government was no sooner re-established, than this evil was considered, andd by one warrant, [Lownds, p. 95, 96, Essay.] dated the fifth of Novemeber 1662, one other warrant, dated the eighth of April 1663, and a third warrant, dated the twenty-fourth of December 1663, "Another sort of Money called Milled Money, was first fabricated to be current in England, with graining or letters upon the rim; which milled Money is made after this manner: First, The gold or silver is cast out of the melting-pot into long flat bars, which bars are drawn through a mill (wrought by a horse) to produce the just thickness of the several species to be coined: then with forcible engines, called Cutters, which answer exactly to the respective sizes of the Money, the round pieces are cut out from the flat bar, shaped as aforesaid, (the residue whereof, called Sizel, is melted again) and then every piece is weighted, and made to agree exactly with the intended weight, and afterwards carried to other engines, (wrought secretly) which put the letters upon the edges of the larger silver pieces, and the graining upon the smaller. The next thing is the blanching performed, (that is, made white or resulgent by nealing or boiling; and, Lastly, Every piece is brought to the press, which is called the Mill, (wrought by the strength of men) and there receives the stamp, which makes it perfect Money." By this method of coining, the Money is effectually secured from counterfeiting, clipping, moulding, or washing; for the engines being many, large, chargeable, and difficult to be made, requiring a large room, and many hands to work it, it is almost impossible to be done without discovery; and the graining secures it from clipping or moulding; nor can it be washed without taking away the brightness and polishing: So that King Charles may be justly stiled Restitutor Monetae, and well deserved to be celebrated by a medal, as was done, upon the like occasion, in honour of Lewis the Thirteenth of France, though the use of the hammer was not interdicted till the second year [Le Blanc, p. 303.] of Lewis the Fourteenth. The milled Money was all of crown gold, and sterling silver, which standard has ever since continued.

Of this first milled Money in 1662, is a very fair Crown Piece, something broader than any that followed. It has the King's bust laureat, looking to the left, contrary to the hammered Money, whereon he looks to the right, like his father; anf from this time it was constantly observed to make the successor look the contrary way; CAROLVS. II. DEI. GRA. and under the King's head a rose, from whence it is commonly called the Rose Crown. Reverse, the arms in four separate shields, crowned, cross-wise, pointing to the star of the garter in the centre; the crowns intersecting the legend, and two C's interlink'd in each quarter. MAG. BR. FRA. ET. HIB. REX. 1662. Upon the rim, DECVS. ET. TVTAMEN. first suggested to Mr. Slingsby (master of the mint) by Mr. Evelyn, [Evelyn's Numismata, p. 225.] out of a viniet of Cardinal de Richileau's Greek Testament, printed at the Louvre; and in imitation of our's, the French had soon after their circumscription about the Coin. The arms, as they are here marshalled, have in the top and bottom shield, France and England quarterly; Ireland on the dexter-side, (which is the second place) and on the sinister, Scotland. But in all the milled Money which followed, France and England being borne separately, that of France (which had been constantly borne in the first quarter, singly, till James the First, and afterwards in the first place quarterly with England) is placed int he bottom shield, or fourth quarter. This irregular bearing first appeared upon the nativity medals of Charles the Second, in 1630, where the shields are placed in this manner; and, no doubt, was originally owing to the ignorance of the graver, who knew no other way to place the arms circularly, than following each other, like the titles, unless (as I have heard) that the arms of each kingdom might fall under the resepctive title in the legend: and this witty conceit has ever since prevailed upon the Coin, except in some of King William and Queen Mary's Money, where the arms are rightly marshalled in one shield. That this was owing to the ignorance of the workman, and not with any design to alter the disposition of the arms, is evident from the arms upon the great seal, where France is borne quarterly with England, in the first and fourth quarters, as it was likewise used upon all other occasions, till the alteration occasioned by the union with Scotland in 1708.

The other milled Crowns, and Half Crowns, have the King's head laureat, like the former, but without the rose, CAROLUS. II. DEI. GRATIA. Reverse, like the former, only, as I have observed, the arms of England and France are borne separately, in the first and four shields; and upon the rims is added the date, viz. DECVS. ET. TVTAMEN. ANNO. REGNI. VICESIMO. OCTAVO. but one of his eighteenth year has the date in numerals, ANNO. REGNI. XVIII.

Another of 1666, has an elephant under the head.

And I must not omit the celebrated Crown bySimon, presented to the Lord Chancellor Clarendon, with a petition to his Majesty upon the rim, being a laudable contention between him and Rotie. It has his Majesty's head laureat, CAROLVS. DEI. GRA. and under the head SIMON. Reverse, like the ordinary Crown, but in the centre the figure of St. George within the garter, the date 1663, and this circumscription in two lines upon the rim, THOMAS SIMON MOST HUMBLY PRAYS YOUR MAJESTY, TO COMPARE THIS HIS TRYAL PIECE WITH THE DUTCH, AND IF MORE TRVLY DRAWN AND IMBOSSED, MORE GRACEFULLY ORDERED, AND MORE ACCVRATELY ENGRAVEN, TO RELIEVE HIM. There is a good draught of this piece in Evelyn, p. 239.

Another of the same stamp, instead of the petition, has this legend upon the rim, REDDITE. QVAE. CAESARIS. CAESARI.

The Shillings and Sixpences have both sides like the Crown, the arms of the four kingdoms in four separate shields: that of 1663, has the King's head admirably well done. One Shilling has an elephant under the head, another has the Prince's device, and the same in the centre of the reverse, in the place of the star and garter; and I have seen one with the Guinea stamp, which, I suppose was only a curiousity, and not current. The Sixpences are like the Shillings, and all of them have graining upon the rim, the strokes going directly across, both upon these and the Guineas, till 1669, when they were altered to diagonal strokes, which were continued in use till 1739.

The smaller pieces of the milled Money have no graining upon the rims; the first coinage of these from a Groat to a Penny, bear the stamp of the hammered Money, viz. the King's bust crowned, looking to the right, in a laced band, and the numerals for the value behind the head, which extends to the edge of the Coin; CAROLVS. D. G. M. B. F. & H. REX. Reverse, the arms divided by the old cross, and the motto, CHRISTO, &C. A Crown the mint-mark. Those of the latter coinage have the King's bust laureat, looking to the left, like the Shilling, CAROLVS. II. DEI. GRATIA. Reverse, MAG. BR. FRA. ET. HIB. REX. with the date. The Penny has one C. under the crown, which intersects the date in the legend. The Twopence, in like manner, has two C's interlinked: the Threepence three C's interlinked triangular; and the Groat four C's, forming a cross, with the rose, thistle, fleur de lis, and harp in the quarters.

The first gold mill Money has the same stamp as the hammered, but is something less, and has the value added in figures behind the head, but no graining upon the edge.

Another, of the same kind, has his bust extending to the edge of the Coin, without the figures behind the head. It is considerably less than the former, though much broader than a Guinea, and is called by some the Unmilled Guinea, as having no graining upon the rim. CAR. II. D. G. M. BR. FR. ET. HI. REX. Reverse, the arms in a shield crowned, with the date above, 1662. FLORENT. CONCORDIA. REGNA. It is the best stamp of any of his Money.

The Guineas took their name from the gold brought from Guinea by the African Company, who, as an encouragement to bring over gold to be coined, were permitted, by their charter, to have thir stamp of an elephant upon the Coin made of the African gold. Of these Guineas, forty-four and a half were coined out of each pound Troy, to go for twenty Shillings each, though they never went for so little. From his fifteenth year, we ahve these milled Guineas and Half-Guineas, with graining upon the edge like the milled Shillings, having on one side the King's head laureat, with the neck bare, which is the difference between the Guinea and Shilling stamp. CAROLVS. II. DEI. GRATIA. Reverse, four shields in cross, with the arms of the four kingdoms as the Shillings, but having four C's interlinked, cross-wise in the centre, and the addition of four sceptres in the quarters, surmounted with the badges of the four kingdoms, viz. the cross for England, the thistle for Scotland, the fleur de lis for France, and the harp for Ireland.

Some of these Guineas have the elephant under the King's head, with a castle upon his back, others the elephant without the castle.

There are likewise Forty-Shilling Pieces, and Five-Pound Pieces, like the Guinea, but the latter have the inscription upon the rim, like the Crown Piece.

It has been observed, that the latter end of Queen Elizabeth's reign, there being no Farthings coined by public authority, and the same being much wanted for small payment, almost every tradesman made his own tokens. This was found very inconvenient to the public, and therefore King James and King Charles both coined Farthing Tokens; but none being coined during the Usurpation, the former practice renewed, every corporation, and almost every person in trade having their particular Halfpence or Farthings of brass or copper, of different dimensions and forms; patents [Thoresby, 379.] were sometimes granted to cities, which continued in use until 1672, when the King's copper Halfpence and Farthings took place.

Those of corporations and towns had generally the name or arms of the place, and the value upon it; as the copper Halfpenny of Nottingham, having on one side the arms of the corporation, and the other inscribed, Nottingham Halfpenny changed by the Chamberlains, 1669.

The Norwich Farthing of copper, on one side the city arms. Reverse, inscribed A Norwich Farthing.

A brass one of Yarmouth, the arms of the corporation, Great Yarmouth, 1667. Reverse, the like arms, For the Use of the Poor.

A Lincoln Halfpenny, octangular, changed by the Mayor, 1669.

The copper Farthing of Tetbury, on one side the arms of the corporation, circumscribed, Arms of that Burrough. Reverse, This Farthing is own'd in Tetbury, 1669.

Henly has a Device, viz. the letter H. under a coronet, with rays issuing from a could over it. THE CORPORATION. Reverse, OF HENLY VPON THAMES THEIR HALFPENNY. of brass.

The London copper Halfpenny has on one side an elephant, whence it is sometimes called the African Halfpenny; and on the other the city arms, and round it, GOD PRESERVE LONDON. This is the largest Halfpenny that ever was coined, some of them weighing ten pennyweights eleven grains, which is above three pennyweights more than King Charles the Second's best Halfpence, and above four pennyweights more than the Halfpennies which have been coined since.

Those of private persons have the letters of their name, their sign, or the arms of the corporation, or company, to which they belong, and their name with the value: and in London, the street where they lived, their sign and trade.

As, Steven Gredier, his Halfpenny. Reverse, Of Margate in Thanet, with the arms of the corporation.-Another, the arms of the Eastland Company, and round it Phillip Cooke at Rederiff-Wall, 1669, their Halfpenny. Reverse, the initial letters of their names, and round it, Of Ingatstone, 1668.-Thomas Renolds in, the letters T. R. in the area. Reverse, the like, and round it COLCHESTER, Baymaker.

One with the letters NEV. and round them, In Ratcliff, 1651. Reverse, a boy with a pipe in his hand, At the Black Boay.

A brass one, with the date 1666, between two roses, Thomas Lucke in Mercers. Reverse, Street, Brewer, his Halfpenny. In the area, T. M. L. and a rose.

Another brass one, Elizabeth Pearce, 63, her Halfpenny. Reverse, three doves, St. Giles in the Fields.

Some of these are very small, but in general, better than the patent Farthings of King James and King Charles.

The first copper Halfpence, coined by authority in this reign, was in 1665, having the King's bust laureat, looking to the left, and the date under it, CAROLVS. A. CAROLO. Reverse, Britannia sitting upon the globe, holding in her right hand an olive branch, and in her left the spear and shield, whereon appears the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew interlinked QVATVOR. MARIA. VINDICO. Exergue, BRITANNIA. These were by some called [Thoresby, No 478.] Lord Lucas's Farthings, from this noted speech upon that occasion; but were soon after called in, to please a neighbouring monarch; they are therefore not very common, especially the Halfpence.

There are a great many other designs for Farthings extant; but the only Halfpence and Farthings made current, were those coined in 1672, some whereof are still in use. These have the King's head like the former, CAROLVS. A. CAROLO. Reverse, the figure of Britannia as before; but, instead of the legend, QVATVOR, &C. have only the name BRITANNIA. and the date in the exergue.

In the last year of King Charles, tin Farthings were coined, with a bit of copper in the middle, having the same stamp as the copper ones, and upon the rim, NVMMORVM. FAMVLVS. 1684.

The Scotch Money of King Charles, has the King's head looking to the left, contrary to the English, except upon the pieces of the mark; and this rule was observed afterwards, except upon some Scotch pieces of Queen Anne.

The Crown or Dollar of fifty-six Shillings Scotch, has the King's bust turned to the right, CAROLVS. II. DEI. GRATIA. Reverse, the four shields of arms crowned, as upon the English Crown Piece; only on these the arms of Scotland are in the first place. A thistle with leaves in each quarter, and two C's interlinked in the centre, SCO. ANG. FR. ET. HIB. REX. 1679. but without either graining or letters upon the rim.

The Half Crown, or Half Dollar, of 1675, has a small F. for the mint-mark under the head, and is well executed.

the Shilling, or Quarter Dollar, and the Half Quarter Dollar, or Seven Shillings Scotch have the same stamp.

The Piece of Four Marks, has the King's head laureat, looking to the left, a Thistle under the head, CAROLVS. II. DEI. GRA. Reverse, the four shields of arms in cross, Scotland being borne singly in the top and bottom shields, and France and England quarterly in the sinister, which properly is in the third place, and Ireland in the Dexter, which is the fourth; in each quarter two C's interlinked under a crown, breaking into the legend; and the value LIII/4 in the centre. MAG. BRI. FRA. ET. HIB. REX. 1674. without graining, or letters upon the rim.

The Two Mark, the Mark, and the Half Mark, bear the same stamp, with their resepctive values in the centre of the reverse, viz. XXVI/8, XII/4, VI/8.

A Quarter Mark has the King's bust laureat, looking to the right, CAROLVS. II. DEI. GRA. Reverse, St. Andrew's cross, with a crown in the centre, and the badges of the four kingdoms in the quarters, viz. a thistle, rose, flower de lis, and harp. SCO. ANG. FRA. ET. HIB. REX. 1667. After this reign, all the pieces of the mark were discontinued.

Bothwells of two sorts; the former has C. R. II. under a crown, CAR. II. D. G. SCOT. ANG. FRA. ET. HIB. REX. Reverse, the thistle, NEMO. ME. IMPVNE. LACESSET. the latter of 1677, have the sword and sceptre in saltier, under a crown. Reverse, the thistle well stamped, and legend on both sides as the former.

The first Halfpennies, called in Scotland Babee's, have the King's head laureat, looking to the right, CAR. II. D. G. SCO. ANG. FR. ET. HIB. R. Reverse, the thistle with leaves, crowned, and legend, NEMO. &C. 1677.

King Charles is said to have coined no silver Money [Irish Hist. lib. p. 171.] for Ireland, but, in his twelfth year, he granted a patent [Historical Register, 1724, p. 129.] to Sir Thomas Armstrong, knight, for making Farthing Tokens of copper: they were like his father's, and the same bigness, but thicker; having two sceptres in saltier through the crown; CAROLVS. II. D. G. M. B. Reverse, the harp crowned, FRA. ET. HIB. REX. Weight, one pennyweight, five grains. The latter Halfpence were coined in his thirty-second year, by patent [Report of the Committee of Privy Council, the 24th of July, 1724.] to the aforesaid Sir Thomas Armstrong, and Colonel George Legg, for twenty-one years, to be coined in such places, and in such quantities, as they should think convenient, without any provision for the goodness and fineness of the copper, or any comptroller to inspect the coinage; nor the power of issuing limited, to such as would voluntarily accept the same, as ought to have been done; yet these were the best that had ever been made for that kingdom, the pound weight of copper being coined into two Shillings and Eightpence. They have the King's bust laureat, looking to the left, CAROLVS. II. DEI. GRATIA. Reverse, the harp crowned, and the date on the sides of the crown, 1680, or 1683, MAG. BR. FRA. ET. HIB. REX. Those of 1680 weigh one hundred and nineteen grains, the others of 1683 about one hundred and nine.

In the East Indies, at Bombay, two sort of Roupees were coined in this reign.

Likewise Fanams, coined at Maderas, having on one side a King in his robes without any inscription, and on the other two C's interlinked, as upon his English Money.

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