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The Copper, Tin and Bronze Coinage
and Patterns for Coins of England, 2nd Edition

H Montagu, F.S.A 1893
Victoria

Table of Contents

Victoria, 1837

The first coinage of her present Majesty was the work of William Wyon, and was highly creditable to the skill of that great artist. The copper pieces were pennies, halfpennies, and farthings for England, half and third-farthings for Ceylon and Malta respectively, as in the preceding reigns, and quarter-farthings, for colonial use also.

Penny

1. O. VICTORIA DEI GRATIA. The queen's head to the left with a fillet twice bound around it; the hair gathered up in a knot behind. Under the neck in sunk letters, W. W., on all the dates until 1858, when a change took place, but pennies of 1858 occur both with and without the W. W. Date under the head.
    R. BRITANNIAR: REG FID: DEF: Figure as on the coins of the last reign. In the exergue, the rose, thistle and shamrock.
S3948 ObverseS3948 Reverse

This occurs of 1841, 1843, and every date subsequently up to and inclusive of 1860, except 1850, and 1852. The penny of 1852 has been said to occur, but as I have hitherto failed to see or hear of one of that date, its existence is doubtful. This is the more peculiar, as, according to the Parliamentary Return of the Mint for that year it would appear that 263,424 pennies (value 1097. 12s) were struck. The Mint Authorities can only conjecture that they were all brought in again to be melted. But were they ever issued? The pennies of 1849 and 1860 are very rare, the latter, it is believed, was not issued for circulation. In 1853 the trident on the reverse appears to have been engraved without the ornamental incidents previously appearing, and this is so with the pennies of 1854, 1855, 1856 and 1857 also, but the pennies of all these years also occur with the ornamented trident. Bronzed patterns of 1839 form a portion, with the halfpenny and farthing, of the Mint set of this reign. They also occur of 1841, and copper proofs also of 1841, 1853, 1856, 1857, and 1859.

In my collection was a silver proof of the penny of 1841 (from the Sainthill cabinet), which is unique.

Halfpenny

2. O. and R. As the penny, but W. W. appears under the neck of the queen on all the dates, and the trident is differently ornamented and is never unornamented.
This occurs of 1838, 1841 and 1843, and thence of all dates up to and including 1859, except 1850, in which year none were struck. The halfpenny of 1860 is excessively rare, and was apparently only struck as a pattern. The bronzed pattern of 1839 has been before referred to. Bronze proofs exist of 1841 and copper proofs of 1853. I have had an unique silver proof of 1841 from the same collection as the penny in that metal.

Farthing

3. O. and R. As the halfpenny, but the trident is differently ornamented and is never unornamented, and the initials W. W. are in raised letters earlier in the reign, and in sunk letters in later times, but on the farthing of 1855 the letters are raised, while on those of 1854 they are sunk, and though on the current farthing of 1853 they are raised, they are sunk on the proof farthing of that year.
This occurs of every date, from 1838 to 1860 inclusive, but the farthing of the last-mentioned date is extremely rare. Bronzed proofs of 1839, as before, and copper proofs of 1839, 1841, 1853, and 1860 exist. In my collection was an unique farthing in silver of 1839 which, though different in date, completes the set formerly in the Sainthill Cabinet.

In the year 1860 a new coinage of bronze was adopted, the metal being composed of 95 parts of copper, 4 of tin and 1 of zinc. The dies were engraved by Mr. Leonard Charles Wyon, then Engraver to the Mint. The coins consisted of pennies, halfpennies and farthings, and subsequently one-third farthings, of the same metal were coined for Malta. Owing to extreme pressure at the Mint, coins of this series were frequently struck for the Government at Birmingham by Messrs. Heaton & Sons, under the supervision of a Mint Officer; these are distinguished by the presence of a small H. under the date.

Penny

4. O. VICTORIA D: G: BRITT: REG: F: D: The bust of the queen to the left, laureate and draped; the rose, thistle, and shamrock embroidered on the shoulder; on her left shoulder is the garter with HONI SOIT more or less distinct. The head of the queen reaches nearly to the edge of the coin, and bisects the legend between G: and BRITT:
    R. ONE. PENNY. Britannia to the right, with her right hand resting on the shield, her left holding the trident; behind her a lighthouse; before her a three-masted ship, sailing away. Under the shield the letters L. C. W., most often so indistinct as to be almost invisible. The date in the exergue.
S3954 ObverseS3954 Reverse

The dates are 1860 and every successive year up to and including 1892.

Of the pennies of 1860, and upon some only of 1861, the name of the artist, L. C. WYON, occurs on the edge of the queen's shoulder. This and the initials L. C. W. under the shield on the reverse, disappear altogether after 1861.

There exists a variety of the year 1860 which differs from the rest of the coinage of that year, and of all the subsequent ones in so far as that the dotted circle, surrounding the legend on both sides, is composed of distinctly circular, instead of semi-circular, dots. This was discontinued, because the dies so engraved were found more liable to break, in striking, than the others. Of this variety both silver and bronze proofs also occur. Mr. Durlacher has one example of 1860 (probably an unique early pattern) with the initials L. C. W.L. C. WYON under the queen's bust, and with circular dots, on which occurs BRIT. instead of BRITT. A variety occurs of the penny of the second coinage of 1860, having L. C. W. under the foot of Britannia, instead of under the shield.

No heraldic colouring appears on the shield of the penny, halfpenny, or farthing of this coinage until 1881. Proofs exist in gold and silver of the penny of 1861, as do also copper proofs, sometimes more or less bronzed, of the same year, and of 1862, 1867, 1868, and 1874, and a nickel proof of 1868. In 1874 a change took place in the bust of the queen on the penny, halfpenny, and farthing of this coinage, and there are coins of that year of both types. The second bust has the nose slightly more aquiline, there is less hair above the wreath, but what little there is, is more wavy, and there is less hair between the ear and tye-knot of the wreath; this portion of the hair being, on the contrary, less wavy.

Halfpenny

5. O. As the penny.
    R. HALFPENNY. The figure of Britannia as on the penny, but no letters under the shield. Date in the exergue.
The dates are 1860 up to 1892 inclusive. The variety of 1860, with the circular dots, occurs both in bronze and bronzed copper. There are gold and silver proofs (extremely rare) of the halfpenny of 1861; also copper proofs, sometimes bronzed, of 1860, 1861 and 1868, and 1874, bronze proofs of 1867, nickel proofs of 1868, and a brass proof (in the collection of Mr. G. D. Brown) of 1872.

One variety of the halfpenny of 1861 has the initials L. C. W. on the rock immediately over the centre of the date on the reverse.

Farthing

6. O. As the halfpenny.
    R. FARTHING. As the halfpenny, Date in the exergue.

PATTERNS

In 1846 copper patterns for a decimal coinage were issued by Marrian and Gausby of Birmingham. The denominations were 10, 5 and 2 cents, and a piece of 1 cent. On the obverse is the head of the queen with fillet; beneath, MARRIAN & GAVSBY. D. BIRM. Rev: 10 CENTS (or 5 CENTS, 2 CENTS or 1 CENT in the field; around in [an?] inner circle, SMITH on DECIMAL CVRRENCY 1846. The names of the engravers do not occur on the 1 cent piece. A variety of the cent piece, resembling the larger pieces, but reading "ONE CENTVM" occurs in tin. Inartistic re-strikes of the 10 cent piece have been recently issued by Mr. Shorthouse of Birmingham, who states that the dies discovered by him in 1888 were subsequently destroyed.

A few patterns, which were private speculations only, were issued in 1848. They consisted of a penny, half-penny, half-farthing, quarter-farthing, one eighth of a farthing, and one sixteenth of a farthing. The word MODEL follows the denomination on each of these, in the case of the two larger pieces and precedes in the case of the others, and the penny and halfpenny have the centre of white metal. These last two also occur wholly in silver.

In 1860 a few bronzed copper patterns were struck by Mr. Joseph Moore, a well-known medalist of Birmingham, which were also private speculations. These patterns were sent by him to the Mint for the approval of the Government, but were not accepted. The dies were destroyed in 1886 after several examples had been re-struck in silver, white metal, bronze and copper. They are as follows:-

1. O. VICTORIA. QUEEN. 1860. Bust of the queen to the left, laureate, and undraped. Inner circle beaded.
    R. GREAT. BRITAIN. AND. IRELAND. "1D between two dots. Beaded inner circle. Britannia, with head to the right, sitting on the prow of an ancient vessel at anchor. Her right hand holds a trident, her left a small laurel branch, and rests on a shield. J. M. beneath.
This also occurs in silver, bronze and gilt bronze.
2. O. Same as preceding.
    R. GREAT. BRITAIN. ONE. PENNY. Figure of Britannia to the left, sitting on a rock; in her right hand a trident; the left holds a laurel branch, and rests on a shield.
This also occurs in silver, bronze and gilt bronze. A variety occurs in silver, as also in gilt and in bronzed copper, with the figure as on the reverse of No. 2, but with no legend or inner circle on the reverse.
3. O. VICTORIA DIE GRATIA BRITT: REG: F: D: in sunk letters on a broad band. Bust of the queen to the left, with long hair, crowned with an open crown.
    R. ONE. PENNY. 1860. Figure, same as No. 1.
This variety is in bronze in the National Collection, and formerly in copper in my own.
3A. O. The same as No. 1.
     R. The same as No. 2.
The occurs in silver, bronze, and gilt bronze.
3B. O. The same as No. 1.
     R. The same as No. 3.
This occurs in silver, copper, bronzed copper and gilt bronze.

In 1857, 1859 and 1860, decimal and other patters were struck at the Royal Mint, and it very rarely happened that any of these escaped beyond the confines of that institution. The following list is compiled from the specimens in the Museum at the Mint, which I have carefully examined more than once, but I have not hesitated somewhat closely to follow the Catalogue of the Coins and Tokens in that Museum, made under the direction of the authorities, by the late Mr. William Webster. Specimens of all the coins except Nos. 14A and 28A are in the Mint collection, save when otherwise stated, and where any of these are also in the National Collection or in the possession of private collectors, I have appended a note to that effect. The coins are in bronze, unless otherwise described, but the bronze is not always of the same hue or composition.

The following are of 1857.

4. Penny. O. VICTORIA. D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D: Diademed head of the queen to the left within a beaded circle; below, 1857.
    R. DECIMAL. PENNY. ONE. TENTH. OF. A. SHILLING. The letter between two small roses. Britannia seated ot the right on a shield, on which her right hand rests; in her left hand a trident.
This was also in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice. and in my own.
5. Five farthings. O. As before.
    R. As before, but reading FIVE FARTHINGS. 10 CENTIMES. On either side of the latter a mullet.
A specimen of this was also in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice and in my own.
6. Ten Cents. O. As before.
    R. As before, but reading TEN. CENTS. ONE. TENTH. OF. A. SHILLING. The latter between two small roses.
This also occurred in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice and in my own.
7. Halfpenny. O. Same as preceding, but with a small rose between two pellets under the bust, instead of the date.
    R. DECIMAL. HALFPENNY. MDCCCLVII. On either side of the latter, a rose between the thistle and shamrock. Figure as before.
This was also in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice and in my own.
8. Halfpenny. O. VICTORIA. D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA. F: D: 1857. Small head of the queen, with wreath of thistles. Inner circle beaded.
    R. DECIMAL. HALFPENNY. 5 CENTIMES. The figure of Britannia within a beaded circle.
Tis is also in the National Collection.
9. Five cents. O. Same as No. 7.
    R. FIVE. CENTS. MDCCCLVII. In other respects as No. 7.
This was also in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice and in my own.
10. Two cents. O. Same as No. 7.
     R. Same as No. 7, but reading TWO. CENTS. MDCCCLVII.
This was also in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice and in my own.
11. One cent. O. Same as No. 7.
     R. Same as No. 7, but reading ONE. CENT. MDCCCLVII. The latter between two oval shaped ornaments.
This was also in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice and in my own.
12. Farthing. O. As No. 8.
     R. As No. 8, but reading ONE. FARTHING-TWO. CENTIMES.
13. Half-farthing. O. As No. 8, but with a plain filleted head.
     R. As No. 8, but reading HALF. FARTHING-1 CENTIME.
The following are of 1859.
14. Penny. O. Same as No. 4, but with the date 1859.
     R. DECIMAL. PENNY. in two lines, between a ten-leaved ornament and St. George and the Dragon; above, ONE. TENTH. OF. and below, A. SHILLING. The whole contained in a beaded circle, surrounded by a wreath of oak.
This was also in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice.
14A. Penny. O. and R. Exactly as on No. 4, but with the date 1859 instead of 1857.
This was in my own cabinet.
15. Penny. G. VICTORIA. D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA. F: D: Larger head, with a different diadem, to the left, within a beaded circle; below, 1859.
     R. ONE. DECIMAL. PENNY. in three lines, within a beaded circle, surrounded by a wreath of oak and palm.
16. Penny. O. As No. 15.
     R. As No. 15, but ONE. DECIMAL. PENNY. in three lines, within a beaded circle, surrounded by a wreath of laurel.
17. Penny. O. As No. 15.
     R. Trident under a crown, surrounded by a wreath of oak and laurel within a beaded circle; above, DECIMAL. PENNY. and below, ONE. TENTH. OF. A. SHILLING.
18. Penny. O. As No. 15.
     R. Lion walking to left under a naval trophy, composed of Britannia's shield and trident in centre of flags and spears, the last having wreaths round the points; between the lion's right fore and hind leg are a rose, thistle and shamrock; above, ONE. PENNY. DECIMAL. and below, a beehive between an olive and palm branch.
19. Penny. O. As No. 15.
     R. ONE. DECIMAL. PENNY, in three lines, within a beaded circle, surrounded by a tressure of 2½ curves, with a rose, three shamrocks and a thistle respectively at the outer points; the first and last are leaved; between one of the roses and shamrocks is a small ornamental G.
This pattern is of aluminum bronze, and is very thick, and of the same size as a current halfpenny. The G. is no doubt the initial of Graham, the master of the Mint at the time these patterns were struck.
20. Penny. O. As No. 15.
     R. ONE. DECIMAL. PENNY in three lines, within a beaded circle, surrounded by a wreath of oak and laurel.
This is also of the same metal and size as the last. They, however, both occur in the Mint cabinet, in ordinary bronze as well.
21. Penny. O. As No. 15.
     R. Full length figure of the queen, as Una, leading the lion to the left; the queen crowned and robed, and holding a sceptre and orb; above, ONE.PENNY, and below, DECIMAL.
22. Penny. O. VICTORIA. D: G: BRIT: REG: F: D: Large head and diadem as before, but no beaded circle; on the neck J. W. in raised letters, and below, 1859.
     R. A large trident between two dolphins, with scrolls between the prongs of the trident. Below, DECIMAL-1 PENNY.
This is of the same size and thickness as No. 19.
23. Penny. O. As No. 22.
     R. ONE. DECIMAL. PENNY. under a crown within a wreath of oak and laurel.
This is of the same size and thickness as No. 19.
24. Penny. O. As No. 22, but without letters on the neck.
     R. Lion walking to the left in front of a palm-tree; below, ONE. PENNY.-DECIMAL. in two lines.
This is of the same size and thickness as No. 19. The design is similar to that on the gold mohurs of India.
25. Penny. O. VICTORIA. DEI. GRATIA. Plain filleted head to left, within a beaded circle; below, 1859 between two ornaments.
     R. BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia holding a trident and seated on a shield to right, within a beaded circle; below, a rose, thistle and shamrock entwined, between two ornaments.
26. Penny. O. VICTORIA. D: G: BRITANNIAR: REG: F: D: Similar head; below, a rose.
     R. Britannia as before; above, ONE. PENNY. and below, MDCCCLIX., the latter between two roses.
27. Penny. O. As No. 25, but no inner circle.
     R. As No. 25, but the trident divides the second and third words of the legend, and there is no inner circle.
A broad flat rim surrounds this pattern.
28. Halfpenny. O. Similar to No. 4, but the legend in larger letters. Below the bust, 1859.
     R. As No. 4, but with larger letters, and reading HALF. DECIMAL. PENNY-ONE. TWENTIETH. OF. A. SHILLING; the latter with no ornaments at the side and in smaller letters than the former.
This was also in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice.
28A. Halfpenny. O. As on No. 28, but with small lettering and no punctuation, and there are no roses on either side of the date.
      R. As No. 28, but with no punctuation or roses.
I have seen two examples only of this pattern, both of which passed into my own possession. The reverse flan of one was much cracked and somewhat defaced, and the fracture of the die was evidently the cause of the rarity of the impressions.
29. Halfpenny. O. As No. 28.
     R. As No. 28, but in place of the legend, a wreath of oak joined at the bottom to a small rose.
30. Halfpenny. O. As No. 28.
     R. HALF. DECIMAL. PENNY. in three lines, within a beaded circle, surrounded by a serpentine wreath of oak.
This was also in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice.
31. Halfpenny. O. As No. 28, but with a small rose instead of the date.
     R. HALF. DECIMAL. PENNY. As before, within a beaded circle, surrounded by a tressure of thirty-two curves, with a rose, shamrock and thistle respectively a the outer points.
32. Five Cents. O. As No. 31
     R. FIVE. CENTS., in two lines, within a beaded circle, surrounded by a wreath of oak and laurel.
33. Halfpenny. O. VICTORIA. D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA. F: D: Larger head with a different diadem to the left, within a beaded circle; below, 1859.
     R. Britannia seated to the right, within a beaded circle, surrounded by a wreath of oak joined at the bottom to a small rose. No legend.
An example in very yellow bronze was also in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice.
34. Halfpenny. O. As No. 33.
     R. HALF. DECIMAL. PENNY. in three lines, within a beaded circle, surrounded by a serpentine wreath of oak.
This is only of the size of a current farthing, but is very thick in proportion.
35. Halfpenny. O. As No. 33.
     R. DECIMAL. HALF. PENNY. under a crown, within a wreath of oak and laurel.
This is of the same size and thickness as No. 34. An example was formerly in my cabinet.
36. Halfpenny. O. As No. 33.
     R. DECIMAL. HALFPENNY. within a laurel wreath.
This is of the same size and thickness as No. 34.
37. Halfpenny. O. As No. 33, but without beaded circle round the head.
     R. As No. 36, but without beaded circle, and reading DECIMAL HALF PENNY. in three lines, within a wreath of laurel.
This is of the same size and thickness as No. 34.
38. Halfpenny. O. VICTORIA. D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA, F: D: Large head, laureate only, to the left; below, 1859.
     R. Britannia, helmeted and holding a trident, seated to the right, within a wreath of oak.
39. Halfpenny. O. As No. 38.
     R. Large figure of Britannia seated on a rock to the right, holding a trident in her left hand and the right resting on a shield; in front of her, a ship anchored before a rock on which is a palm-tree; the whole within a treble tressure of six curves inwards, with ornamental points; outside the tressure, in the angles, are roses, shamrocks and thistles. No legend.
40. Halfpenny. O. As No. 38.
     R. A trident under a crown, within a wreath of oak and laurel. No legend.
41. Halfpenny. O. VICTORIA. DEI. GRATIA. Plain filleted head to left, within a beaded circle; below, the date 1859 between two ornaments.
     R. BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia holding a trident and seated on a shield to the right, within a beaded circle; below, a rose, thistle and shamrock intertwined.
This pattern is of two sizes, and the bust is from the die of the current shilling. An example of the ordinary size was also in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice and in my own.
42. Halfpenny. O. VICTORIA. D: G: BRITANNIAR: REG: F: D: Plain filleted head to left, within a beaded circle; below, a rose.
     R. Britannia as before, within a beaded circle; above, HALFPENNY. below, MDCCCLIX. between two ornaments.
43. Halfpenny. O. As No. 42, but with large letters and without the beaded circle.
     R. As No. 42, but without the beaded circle.
44. Halfpenny. O. VICTORIA. DEI. GRATIA. Plain filleted head to left; below, 1859. Between two ornaments.
     R. BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia as before, but the trident divides the second and third words of the legend; below, a rose, shamrock and thistle intertwined.
This resembles the penny No. 27 in all respects, including the broad flat rim which surrounds the coin.
45. Farthing. O. As the halfpenny No. 41.
     R. As the reverse of No. 41, but with a cinquefoil below Britannia in place of the rose, thistle and shamrock.
46. Farthing. O. As the halfpenny No. 42.
     R. As the reverse of No. 42, but reading ONE. FARTHING.-MDCCCLIX.
47. Farthing. O. As the halfpenny No. 44, but without the ornaments on either side of the date.
     R. As the reverse of No. 44, but with a cinquefoil below Britannia.
This also has the broad flat rim.
48. Cent. O. VICTORIA. D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA. F: D: Head laureate and filleted to left, within a beaded circle; below, a rose.
     R. ONE. CENT. in two lines, within a wreath of laurel.
49. Cent. O. As No. 48.
     R. ONE. CENT. in small letters, within a beaded circle, surrounded by a wreath of laurel.
Both the foregoing pieces are without a date.

The following are also of 1859, but are of nickel, and are, therefore, of a smaller module.

50. Twopence. O. VICTORIA. D: G: BRIT: REGINA F: D: A crown.
     R. PENCE. below which is the numeral 2 between two small roses. Below, 1859. Dotted edge.
A variety also occurs with plain edge.
51. Penny. O. As No. 50, but there is a small rose under the crown.
     R. As No. 50, but PENNY. and the numeral 1 between two small roses, beneath. Dotted edge.
This was also in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice.
52. Halfpenny. O. As No. 51.
     R. As No. 51, but with ½ below PENNY. Dotted edge.
This was also in my cabinet. A specimen with a plain edge was in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice. The above set occurs in the Mint Museum in aluminum bronze as well as in nickel.
53. Twopence. O. As No. 50.
     R. Numeral 2 within an octagon, above, PENCE. and below, 1859. Dotted edge.
This was also in my cabinet and in that of Mr. Brice.
54. Penny. O. As No. 51.
     R. As No. 53, but 1 within the octagon, which is between two small roses; above, PENNY. Plain edge.
This was also in my cabinet and in that of Mr. W. Brice.
55. Twopence. O. As No. 50.
     R. TWO. PENCE. in two lines, within a laurel wreath.
This was also in my cabinet.
56. Penny. O. As No. 51.
     R. As No. 55, but reading ONE. PENNY.
57. Halfpenny. O. As No. 51.
     R. As No. 55, but reading HALF. PENNY.
The following patterns are of 1860, and are of the usual size.
58. Penny. As the ordinary penny of 1860, with the beaded circle of circular dots, but the legend on the obverse is VICTORIA. D: G: BRITANNIARUM. REGINA. (F: D: being omitted).
An example of this, in bronze, was in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice, and another is in the cabinet of Mr. A. Durlacher, but there is no example in the Mint Collection.
59. Penny. O. VICTORIA. D: G: BRITANNIAR: REG: F: D: Bust of the queen laureate to the left and wearing a plain bodice, with a rose in front; over the left shoulder is a mantle, decorated with roses, thistles and shamrocks, and the garter.
     R. ONE. PENNY. Britannia seated on a shield to right; holding in her left hand a trident, and her right resting on the shield; behind her a lighthouse, and in front of her a man-of-war; below the shield L. C. W. in incuse letters, and in the exergue MDCCCLX. placed horizontally.
This is also in the cabinet of Mr. A. Durlacher.
60. Penny. O. As No. 59, but reading REGINA. and with the beaded circle broken by the queen's bust.
     R. As No. 59, but the beaded circle is broken by BRITTANIA. and the sea. In the exergue MDCCCLX. is in a curved position.
This also was in the cabinet of Mr. W. Brice, and an example also is in that of Mr. A. Durlacher.

In 1862, 1865 and 1870 were coined as patterns, further pennies, with the queen's head surmounted by a diadem instead of the usual laurel wreath, and with these dates respectively in the exergue of the reverse. In all other respects, except in the arrangement of the queen's hair, they resemble the current pennies. All these are extremely rare, occurring but seldom in private collections, and there is no specimen of either in the Mint Collection or in the National Collection. I have had bronze proofs of the pieces of 1862 and 1870, copper proofs also of the pieces of 1865 and 1870, and a nickel proof of that of 1862. The last is probably unique.


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