The Silver Coins of England
Edward Hawkins, 1841
Sole Monarchs of England - Henry I
Table of Contents
Henry I. 1100 to 1135.
Henry I. soon after his accession, took the state of the currency into consideration, and during his reign
passed many severe laws against forgers and debasers of the coin, and made regulations respecting
the condition in which the pieces should be, in order to give them the validity of money. These
regulations have been much misrepresented, and never clearly explained. The supposed enactment,
and the coins as we now have them, throw no light upon each other, and we need not, therefore, in
this work be delayed by their consideration, but proceed to a description of the coins attributed to this
king. No other coins of this king are known than pennies; they ought to weight 22 ½ gr. and the
silver ought to be standard, that is 11 gr. 2 dwts. fine, to 18 dwts. alloy, they do not however in fact
look as if they were all equally fine; some have at least the appearance of being of purer metal than
the others. The types are very various, and of forms scarcely capable of description; to the plates,
therefore, we must refer for their being better understood, but think it advisable to add a somewhat
detailed description of the mode in which the king's titles were expressed upon each type. We have
been rather the more particular in this, because some Antiquaries doubt as to the correct attribution
of some of the coins of the various Henries, and the more minute particulars may perhaps aid them in
arriving at a conclusion satisfactory at least to themselves. We have not been able to state the
number of the moneyers or mints of this king, because Snelling and Ruding separating the names of
the people from the places in their lists, and not specifying the types on which they appear, we cannot
say with certainty which belong to the coins that we here assign to Henry I.
The only coins of this king which are not very rare are No. 6 and 18.
- Front face between two annulets, most closely resembling in style and workmanship, that of William
Rufus, (250). Rev. cross fleury, &c. (251). Rud. i. 15. S. ii. 2. Sn. i. 13. HENRE EX I . HNRI REX. sometimes
with N or I, or NL in monogram, HNRICVS RE, HENRICVS REX. MB. 10. v. r. one of the
- Front face, mantled. Rev. tressure, of four carved and four angular sides, inclosing an annulet. (252).
Rud. Sup. i. 9. Sn. i. 14. HENRI or RIE RE. mantle over both shoulders, or fastened on one by a broach as
a Greek chlamys. ext. rare, MB. 2.
- Front face crowned, mantled. Rev. PAX across the field, two annulets above and two below. HENRI
REX or REX I. (253). Rud. Sup. i. 7. Sn. i. 15. MB. 3. ext. rare.
- Front face. Rev. cross fleury, pierced in the centre, or perhaps four knots crosswise issuing from a
centre annulet; sometimes a pellet in each angle, HENRICVS REX A., AN. or ANGL. Rud. Sup. i. 6. S. pt.
2. ii. 6. MB. 7.
- Profile to left, with sceptre. Rev. as No. 4. HENRI RE or REX. (254). Rud. Sup. ii. 3. S. pt. 2. ii. 4.
- Front face or 3/4 to left, holding sceptre. Rev. tressure of four sides fleury at the corners, upon a
cross fleury, a pellet in each angle, HENRICVS, or with R. (255). Rud. ii. 6. Sn. i. 24. MB. 10.
- Side face, to left, holding sceptre. Rev. cross, annulet in each angle, HENRI REX. (256). Rud. i. 14. Sn.
1. 20. ext. rare, MB. 2.
- Front face, a sceptre. Rev. quatrefoil enclosing five annulets. Rud. Sup. i. 8. Sn. i. 21. Similar but very
different workmanship. (257). Rud. Sup. 2. ii. 4. MB. 1. Another without sceptre, and some
additional ornament issuing from the angles of the quatrefoil, HENRIC RE Rud. Sup. 2. ii. 3. ext.
- Profile to left, sceptre, head very large, rude; sometimes an ornament in the field. Rev. small cross,
within two concentric legends, one of the moneyer's name, the other of the mint. Badly executed,
badly struck; legends very imperfect, Rud. Sup. 2. i. 3. Mr. Cuff. ii. 12, 13, 14. (258). ext. rare.
MB. the three last. This is the only instance of a double legend upon an English penny. No other
specimens than these four are known.
- Profile to right, holding sceptre, an ornament in the field. Rev. tressure of four sides, &c. as No. 6.
Rud. Sup. 2. ii. 9. MB. 1. Similar without ornament on obverse, MB. 1.
- Profile as preceding, sceptre, with different ornament or without any. Rev. cross fleury? the
terminations uniting and forming a tressure of eight semicircular sides, the interior angles fleury. (259).
Rud. Sup. 2. ii. 8. 10. MB. 1.
- Profile to right, with sceptre, bonneted. Rev. tressure, &c. as No. 6, Rud. Sup. 2. ii. 11. MB.
1. in this plate the pellets of the reverse are erroneously omitted.
- Front face, between two mullets. Rev. tressure of four sides, a pellet at each angle, over a cross,
each limb terminating in three pellets. (260). Rud. Sup. 2. ii. 5. MB. 1.
- Another, where the cross consists of two bars, similar to that of William. Rud. Sup. 2. ii. 2. (261).
MB. 1. this is only half a coin.
The above six last pieces are all in the Brit. Mus. they were all found together, and are extremely rare,
perhaps unique, they are not well executed or well struck; the legends not entirely legible. King's
name, &c. HENRICVS, &c.
- Front face, sceptre, rose in field. Rev. quatrefoil, inclosing cross of pellets with a star in the centre;
fleur de lis in the angles, HENRICVS R or RE. (262). Rud. Sup. i. 11. ii. 6., S. 2. i. 5., S. 2. ii. 7., Sn. i. 23.
rare, MB. 4.
- Front face, high crown, holding sceptre, quatrefoil and rose in field. Rev. quatrefoil, containing
cross with annulet in each angle; a small quatrefoil at each spandril, HENRI REX. (263). Rud. Sup. i. 10.,
S. 2. i. 7., Sn. i. 18. rare, MB. 3.
- Profile to left, rose in front. Rev. cross, annulet in each angle similar to No. 7. HENRICVS R. (264).
Rud. S. i. 12., Sn. i. 19. rare. MB. 3.
- Profile to left, sceptre. Rev tressure of four sides, fleury at the angles, inclosing a star; three
annulets opposite each side, HENRICVS R (265). Sn. i. 22. Rud. ii. 5. MB. 7.
- Head three quarters to right, sceptre; roses or stars in front. Rev. cross potent over a cross fleury,
a pellet, lozenge or star in each angle. (266). Rud. ii. 7. Sn. i. 17. MB. 1. Another has the head
more nearly resembling the next type, No. 20. and with small stars instead of pellets on the reverse,
CUFF. Another, Rev. cross, four annulets in each angle. S. i. 13. Sn. i. 16. HENRI REX, ext.
- Front face, sceptre, star in field. Rev. cross voided, floret in each angle, HENRIC REX. (267). see
Rud. S. 2. i. 6. MB. 1.
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