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The Gold Coins of England

Robert Lloyd Kenyon, 1884
Charles I (1625-1648)

Table of Contents

CHARLES I, 1625 TO 1648.

Charles I succeeded his father on the 27th of March, 1625, and was proclaimed the following day; and on the 1st of April a commission was directed to the wardens of the mint, Sir Edward Villiers and Sir Wm. Parkhurst, and others, to continue the mint at work according to the last indenture of James I, which had expired upon his death. The dies of the late king were to be used until others should be provided. The coins thus ordered to be made were Unites, Double Crowns, and Britain Crowns, of “crown” gold, and Rose Ryals, Spur Ryals, and Angels of the old standard or “angel” gold, and, excepting that no Ryals were actually coined, and that during the civil war £3 pieces were issued at Oxford, no alteration was afterwards made during the reign either in the denominations of the coins or in the purity of the metal. Considering the straits to which the king was often driven for want of money, and considering that Henry VIII, Elizabeth, and James I, had all either increased the nominal value of the coins or diminished the quantity of gold contained in them, this fact must be considered creditable to Charles I and his advisers. There was indeed a Commission issued on the 14th of August, 1626, which, after stating that the king had resolved to continue his monies, to be coined at his mint, of the same standard as they then were, proceeds to order that the pound of crown gold should be made into £44 by tale (£41 being the amount previously fixed) and the pound of silver into £3. 10s 6d (instead of £3. 2s). The Commission contains no recital of an intention to diminish the weight of the coins, and it is probable that no such intention existed, and that the sums named were inserted by mistake, for on the 4th of September a proclamation was issued that all monies of gold and silver coined since the 1st day of August in any other manner than according to the proclamations which were in force on that day, should be esteemed as bullion and not be current; and a commission of the 7th of September to Villiers and Parkhurst, and an indenture of the 8th of November with Sir Robert Harley, fixed the same weights as in the last indenture of James I. Angels were not coined after 1634, and ever since that time crown gold has been the only standard used for the coins.

Several mints besides that in the Tower were used during this reign, both before and after the breaking out of the civil war, but those at Bristol and Oxford are the only ones at which gold is known to have been coined. The legends introduced by James I were all discontinued, and instead of them were used “Amor Populi Praesidium Regis,” “Florent Concordi Regna,” and “Cultores sui Deus Protegit;” but during the civil wars “Exurgat Deus dissipentur inimici” (Ps. lxviii. 1) was revived upon the coins struck by the king’s party, together with an abbreviation of “Religio Protestans, Leges Angli Libertas Parliamenti,” referring to Charles’s declaration at Wellington, September 19th, 1642, that he would “preserve the Protestant religion, the known laws of the land, and the just privileges and freedom of Parliament.” The type upon which this inscription occurs is hence called the “Declaration” type.

No legal currency was given to any foreign gold coins during this reign, though about the year 1644 several are said to have been commonly current in the southern and western counties.

The types and descriptions of the various coins are as follows :—

UNITES. Value 20s. Weight 140 20/41 grs. Fineness 22 cts. These are of several different types, corresponding to a great extent with those of the silver shillings. The dates of the various mint-marks are given in the table on p. 165.

TOWER MINT. Type 1. King’s bust in profile to left, crowned, with ruff, royal mantle, and collar of the garter, XX behind head. Two inner circles, the innermost thin and plain, the outermost beaded. CAROLVS D. G. MAG. BR. FR. ET HI. REX. Rev, square shield garnished, the crown over it divides the legend. Inner circles as on obv. The harp in the arms has a bird’s or griffin’s head. FLORENT: CONCORDIA: REGNA: MM lis. (113) MB. Rud. xiii. 1 reads BRI, and has a different arrangement of dots. MM cross on step, same, but only one inner circle on obv., no stops on rev. MONTAGU. Type la. Different bust, crowned, with ruff, armour nearly concealed by scarf fastened on left shoulder, only one inner circle, which is beaded, and is slightly pierced both by crown above and by front of scarf below. The rest of the bust does not touch the inner circle. XX behind head. Rev, square shield very slightly garnished. The harp always has a griffin’s head except with the Plume mint-mark. MM cross on step. Legends as type 1, but only one dot after Regna. THORBURN. Or BRIT. FRA., dot after Carolus, Et, and Regna, none after other words on rev. MB. MM negro’s head, legends as type 1, but two dots instead of one on obv., none after Rex or on rev. MB. Or reading CAROLVS. D: G: MAG. BRI: FR. ET. HIB. REX., one dot after each word on rev. MB. Or BR., no dots on rev. EVANS. MM castle, legends and dots as type 1, but dot before Carolus, none after Rex or on rev. MB. Or dot before Carolus and after every word except Carolus on obv., none on rev. MB. Or reading BRI, dot before Carolus and after every word except HI on obv., one before and after rev, legend, but none between words on rev. MB. BRI, no dots except after D and G. THORBURN. Or BR, HIB, dot before Carolus and after every word on obv., none on rev. MB. MM anchor, BR. FRA. ET HIB., dot after every word on obv. except Et and Rex, none on rev. MB. Or with the obv. mint-mark placed under the bust, ..BRI FRA. ET. H., dot after every word on obv., none on rev. MB. Or reading MA. BR. FR ET HI, no stops on rev. MONTAGU. MM heart, much neater workmanship, plain inner circle on both sides within beaded one, .CAROLVS. D. G. MA. BR .. FR. ET. HI. REX., dot after every word on rev. and after rev, mint-mark. MB. MM obv. heart, rev, plume. HIB. Plain circle on both sides of beaded inner circle. EVANS. MM plume, like the last but one, but : after the abbreviated words on obv., no stops between words on rev., no plain inner circle on rev. MB. One with MM plume and with the same bust as the preceding ones has a thick plain inner circle on obv. and reads CAROLVS D: G: MA: BR: FR: ET HI: REX Rev, like the next type, with dot before Florent, after every word, and after mint-mark. MB.

Type 2. Obverse nearly the same, but rather more armour visible. CAROLVS. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FR. ET. HIB. REX. Rev, oval shield garnished, crowned, between C and R, dot in field each side of crown. .FLORENT. CONCORDIA. REGNA. Dot after mint-mark. Plain inner circle within beaded one on both sides. MM plume. MB. Rud. xiii. 4. Or with dot before Carolus, none before Florent. MB. MM large rose, no plain inner circle on rev., no dot before Carolus or Florent. MB. Or BRI. FRA., as first of this type but no plain inner circle on obv. MB. Or MM small rose on obv., large rose on rev. BR. FR. ET. HI. Rude workmanship. EVANS. Type 3. Bust crowned to left, in armour, face larger, no ruff nor scarf, long hair, lovelock on left shoulder, deep falling collar edged with lace, ribbon of the garter suspended on breast. XX behind head. .CAROLVS. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRA. ET. HIB. REX. Rev, oval shield garnished, different from the last, crowned, between C and R crowned. Beaded inner circle on both sides interrupted by crown. FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, MM harp. MB. Rud. xiii. 5 reads BRI. FR. MM portcullis, bust rather smaller, less shoulder visible, BR. FR. ET. HI. No dot before or after obv. legend, one after Florent and Concordia, three after Regna. MB. Or HIB, with no stops on rev. MONTAGU. MM bell, .CAROLVS. D. G. MA. BR. FR. ET. HIB. REX. Dot before Florent, after every word on rev. and. after rev. mint-mark. MB. MM crown, as bell but HI, no dots on rev. MB. MM ton, as crown, but dot between words on rev. MB. MM prostrate anchor, as bell, but no dot before Florent or after Regna. MB. Or reading B. FR. ET. HI :: THORBURN. MM (P), as bell, but MAG. BRI. FRA. MB. This coin is later than most of those next to be described, as the (P) mint-mark is placed by Folkes and Ruding immediately before, and by Pollet, who is probably right, immediately after the (R) mint-mark.

The following are of similar type, but the face is more marked, the armour different, the lace on the collar of a stellate pattern. MM triangle, CAROLVS. D. G. MAG. BRI. FRA. ET. HIB. REX, dot after every word on rev. and after rev, mint-mark. (114) MB. MM star, same with dot each side of obv. mint-mark. MB. MM triangle within circle, as last. MB. Or reading FLORRENT by mistake for Florent. THORBURN. MM (R),bust very slightly different, dot before Florent, otherwise as last. MB. One with MM eye is mentioned in Num. Chron., i, p. 33. With bust different, hair brushed more forward, collar smaller and lace of a different pattern, armour different, harp in arms much smaller, MM sun, legends as star. MB. MM sceptre, same, with legends as triangle. MB.

BRIOT. The coins executed by Nicholas Briot, who was first employed in England in 1628, and was appointed chief engraver in 1633, are smaller and much neater and better executed than the others. 1. Bust similar to type 3 but better executed, with scarf fastened by rosette over left shoulder, .XX. behind head. CAROLVS. D. G. MAGN. BRITANN. FRAN. ET. HIB. REX. Rev. Square shield garnished, crowned, between C and R crowned, a lozenge beneath each of these letters. .FLORENT. CONCORDIA. REGNA. MM on obv. flower with B (for Briot) under it, on rev. B only. The dots are all lozenge shaped. (115). MB. 2. Same but B to left of, instead of under, obv. MM, HIBER for Hib. Rev. C and R placed higher in the field, no lozenge under them, nor before or after legend. MB. Rud. xiv. 1 is like this but reads BRITAN and HIB and has lozenge before and after rev, legend. 3. Bust like that on the coins with MM triangle, &c., letters behind head larger. .CAROLVS. D: G. MAG. BRIT. FR. ET. HIB. REX. Rev, similar to the last but one. FLORENT. CONOORDIA. REGNA. MM anchor. Dots all lozenge shaped. MB. There is no B on this coin to show that it was executed by Briot, but there is a B on a shilling with the same MM.

OXFORD UNITES. The mint originally established for coining silver at Aberystwith, and brought from that place to Shrewsbury at the beginning of the civil war, was removed to Oxford and set up there in New Inn Hall on the 3rd of January, 1642 (old style), under the direction of Sir William Parkhurst and Thomas Bushell. The only distinction between the coins struck at Shrewsbury and at Oxford in 1642, seems to be in the form of the plumes in the field of the coins, the plumes on the Shrewsbury coins springing from a large coronet with no bands under it, those on the Oxford ones from a small coronet with bands. We are not aware of the existence ot any Shrewsbury gold coins, but the following varieties were struck at Oxford.

1642. Half-length figure in profile to left descending to inner circle, crowned, in armour, plain falling collar, large sword upright in right hand, olive branch in left, XX behind head. CAROLVS: D: G: MAG: BRIT: FRAN: ET: HI: REX. Rev. Inscription in two lines across the field, RELIG: PROT: LEG ANG: LIBER: PAR, a wavy line above, between, and below the two rows of words, three plumes, with bands beneath them, above, 1642 below. Legend EXVRGAT: DEVS: DISSIPENTVR: INIMICI: No MM. (116) MB. For the meaning of the inscription see ante, p. 150.

1643. The workmanship in this year is decidedly better than in 1642.

1. Bust descends through inner circle to edge of coin, hair much longer, deep falling lace collar, longer sword in right hand, longer olive branch in left, badge of the Garter suspended by chain on breast, XX behind head. Legend begins at bottom of coin. .CAROLVS. D: G: M: BR: FR: ET. HI: REX. Rev, type as the last, but the inscription is in three lines and is placed on a scroll connected with the inner circle, so that the legend and inscription read continously. .EXVRGAT: DEVS: DISSIPENTVR: INIMICI RELIG: PROT LEG: ANG LIBER: PAR. No MM. Date 1643 below scroll, three plumes above it. MB.

2. Obv. same. Rev, similar but scroll shaped rather differently, no dot before Exurgat, one after each word of legend and before Leg, ANGL: for Ang. MB. This is almost identical with a double crown, Rud. xiii. 11, post, p. 162.

3. Obv. similar, but the figure does not descend through the inner circle, the crown slightly pierces it above. A good deal of the lace collar is shown behind the hair and over the left shoulder, the olive branch slopes backwards more than on the previous coins. The legend begins at the top of the coin, CAROLVS: D: G: MAG: BRIT: FR: ET: HI: REX. Rev, scroll shaped as on No. 2, EXVRGAT: DEVS: DISIPENTVR (sic): INIMICI RELIG: PROT LEG: ANG LIBER: PAR Plumes above, 1643 below. MB.

4. Obv. similar to the last, but the figure is smaller and the crown does not pierce the inner circle; no collar visible behind the hair, the badge suspended on the breast is larger and much more prominent. Legend CAROLVS: D: G. MAG: BR: FR: ET: HIBER: REX Rev, similar to the last, EXVRGAT. DEVS. DISSIPENTVR. INIMICI: RELIG: PROT: LEG: ANG: LIBER: PAR MB.

5. Obv. from the same die as the last. Rev, scroll of different shape, otherwise as No.3 but DISSIPENTVR: MB.

1644. 1. Similar to 4 but figure different, medal on breast and letters behind head much smaller, olive branch much larger. MM very small plume. CAROLVS. D: G: MAG: BRI: FR: ET. HIB: REX. Rev, like 1643 (1), but date 1644, with OX for Oxford below it. .EXVRGAT DEVS. DISSIPENTVR. INIMICI. RELIG: PROT LEG: .ANG: LIBER: PAR. MB. Rud. xiii. 10.

2. Figure similar but placed lower in field, interrupting inner circle but not legend, head and crown larger. MM plume, and legend as last but BR:, HI :, dot before Carolus. Rev. Inscription in three lines across field within inner circle, a straight line above and below it, three plumes between two lozenges above it, 1644/OX below. EXVRGAT. DEVS. DISSIPENTVR .INIMICI: Inscription RELIG. PR. LEG. ANGL LIBER. PA. All the dots are lozenge-shaped, except those between the words of the inscription. MB.

1645. Bust almost identical with the first of 1644 but placed rather lower in field, olive branch smaller, MM and legend same but BRIT:, HI:, two dots between every word. Rev, similar but scroll of different shape, date 1645, without OX, below it; no dot before Exurgat, one after it, two after Prot, none after Par. MB.

1646. Bust similar, but neater and better executed. No MM. CAROLVS. D: G : MAG : BRI : FRAN : ET. HIB : REX. Rev, usual legend on a band round the field, the ends of which are separated at the top of the coin by the MM plume. Dot between each word. Inscription in three lines on wavy scroll, RELIG : PRO LEG : ANG LIBER: PAR Nothing except the MM above it, 1644/OX below. (117) MB.

BRISTOL UNITE. Bust similar to the second Oxford one of 1644, but ruder, collar of different shape, sword very small, crown pierces inner circle, which is not interrupted by the bust. The letters XX behind the head are large. MM BR in monogram. .CAROLVS. D : G : MAG : BR : FR : ET : H : REX. Rev. Inscription on scroll continuous with the legend, but divided from it by the monogram BR; three very small plumes above inscription, 1645 below. EXVRGAT. DEVS. DISSIPENTVR. INIMICI. : REL: PRO LEG: AN. LIB : PA: MB. This, as well as some silver coins of dates from 1643 to 1645, is ascribed on account of the mint-mark to Bristol, which was in the king’s hands during those years. The workmen for this mint must no doubt have been brought from Oxford. A specimen of this coin was sold for £29 at Capt. Murchison’s sale in 1864. Num. Chr., N. S., iv. 229. That in the Museum was bought for £12. Compare the Double Crown (124).

UNCERTAIN UNITES. 1. Small rude bust, copied from the Tower Unite with MM triangle. The type of the whole coin is the same, but the execution much ruder. MM plume. : CAROLVS. D. G. MA. BR. FR. ET. HI. REX: Rev. .FLORENT. CONCORDIA. REGNA. Dot after mint-mark. MB. It seems not improbable that this may have been executed at Aberystwith, though we know no record of gold having been coined there. The mint at Aberystwith was worked from 1637 or 1638 to 1642, and the type of some of the silver coins struck there is identical with that of the coins struck at the Tower with the triangle MM, the date of which is 1639. The mint-marks on the Aberystwith silver coins are a Book or a Crown, but all coins struck there were ordered to be marked on both sides with a plume, and this Unite, which has the plume on one side though not on both, may have been struck at Aberyst with during the period of confusion in 1642, while the regular workmen of the mint were removing to Shrewsbury and Oxford. (See Hawkins’s “Silver Coins,” 2nd ed., pp. 316, 322.)

2. Type like an uncertain shilling, Hks. (530), Rud. E. 11, but no dots on armour, medal on breast much smaller, XX behind head. Shield oval, garniture similar but not identical with that on the shilling, crowned, between C and R crowned. MM on obv. only, uncertain. CAROLVS: D : G. MA: BR. FR : ET HIB. REX. Rev. °FLORENT° CONCORDIA° REGNA: MB. The silver coins of this type resemble those which are believed to have been struck at Weymouth, and they as well as this gold coin were probably therefore produced there, or at least by the same artists.

THREE POUND PIECES. Value 60s. Weight 421 19/41 grs. Fineness 22 cts. These are all of the type of the Oxford Unites, and were all probably struck in that city. Like the silver pounds, they occur of the dates 1642 to 1644.

1642. 1. Exactly like the Unite of 1642, but plume with bands below it instead of the figures behind the head, and rev, inscription in three lines across the field, .III., indicating the value, and three plumes, above it, 1642 below. MM plume on obv. CAROLVS: D: G: MAG: BRIT: FR: ET : HIB: REX Rev. EXVRGAT: DEVS: DISSIPENTVR: INIMICI RELIG: PROT LEG: ANG LIBER: PAR MB. Rud. xiii. 9 is similar, but reads FRAN: ET : HI : and has only two dots before Exurgat.

2. Similar, but king’s figure smaller, not touching inner circle, sword smaller, FRAN: ET: HI : Rev, similar, but the inscription is on a scroll in continuation of the inner circle. LEGI : Only one dot before Exurgat. MB.

1643. 1. Same as the last, but inner circle is made part of the scroll; LEG : Date 1643. MB. The reverse is identical with that of the first Unite of 1643, except for the .III. above the inscription.

2. Obv. like the first Unite of 1643, but the bust is confined within the inner circle, and has a large scarf flowing out behind it, and plume instead of figures behind the head. The legend begins at the top of the coin, CAROLVS : D : G : MAGN: BRIT : FR: ET : HI : REX MM plume. Rev, almost exactly the same as Unite No. 5, but EXVRGAT : DEVS : ET : DISSIPENTVR : INIMICI: RELIG : PROT: LEGI.: ANGL: LIBER: PAR. MB.

3. Like last but without scarf, figure rather smaller, FRAN: ET : HIB : REX.: Only one dot after Carolus and G. Rev, identical with the Unite of 1643, No. 4, except that it has III above the scroll, and has: after PROT as well as before LEG. MB.

4. Obv. from same die as last. Rev, similar, but a rosette each side of III, two after each word in legend and inscription except Par, three after Prot, two before Leg, one before Liber and after Par. OXON in small letters under date, rosette each side of it and each side of date. (118) MB. Very rare.

1644. 1. Bust almost the same as Unite of 1643, No. 3, coin considerably smaller and thicker than the former ones. CAROLVS. D: G: MAG: BRI: FRA: ET. HIBER: REX. MM plume. Rev. Scroll of rather different shape from the last, legend and inscription the same, plumes above scroll very small, 1644/OX below it. Lozenge each side of III and date, after Relig, Leg, Ang, and Liber, and before Leg, two before Exurgat and between words of legend, one between four dots after Inimici. MB.

2. Obv. from same die as last. Rev, same but OXON, dots instead of lozenges, one between each word of legend, after Liber, and each side of date and Oxon, two after Relig, Leg, Ang, and Par, and before Leg, five after Inimici. MB.

3. As last but coin still smaller and thicker, crown does not pierce inner circle, lozenges instead of dots on obv. Rev. as last, but of rather neater execution, plumes larger, one dot after each word of legend, two after each word of inscription and before Leg, one each side of date and Oxon. MB.

ANGEL. Value 10s. Weight 64 64/89 grs. Old Standard. Obv. St. Michael and the Dragon, as usual. Spear pierces dragon’s mouth and comes out the other side. Two inner circles, the innermost plain, the other beaded. CAROLVS. D. G: MAG: BRI: FR: ET. HI: REX Rev, as James I’s latest angels. AMOR. POPVLI. PRAESIDIVM. REGIS: MM cross on step, placed to left of St. Michael’s head and right of mast. (119) MB. MM negro’s head, X in field by Dragon’s head, rev. mint-mark to left of mast, FRA. ET. HIB., on one dot between each word, none at end of legends. MB. MM castle, as cross on step but X in field by St. Michael’s left wing, rev, mint-mark to left of mast, no dots after Regis. MB. MM anchor, same but : after D on obv., no stops on rev. MB. MM heart, bought by Mr. Shepherd at Mr. Cuff’s sale. MM rose, X under St. Michael’s right wing, pellet between his legs above the dragon. Only one dot between words on obv., none on rev. MB. The mint-mark on this specimen seems to be struck over the preceding MM plume. MM portcullis, as last but BRIT. FRA., dot after Rex and between words on rev. MB. MM bell, as last, dot after rev, mint-mark. Rud. xiii. 8. This is erroneously stated to be in the British Museum.

BRIOT. Like the other angels, but the coin is considerably smaller and the workmanship neater. Type as before but St. Michael’s figure is smaller and has both legs straight, X under his left wing. CAROLVS. D: G. MAG. BRITANN. FRAN. ET. HIB. REX. Rev, more rigging visible, the harp on the sail not concealed, as on the other coins, by the foremast, cannons protruding from the port holes, no flag above sail but one marked with cross at stern, no lion on prow or stern but small B (for Briot) in front of prow, with lozenge above and below. AMOR. POPVLI. PRAESIDIVM. REGIS. All the stops are lozenge-shaped. MB. Rud. Suppl. vi. 25.

DOUBLE CROWN. Value 10s. Weight 70 10/41 grs. Fineness 22 cts. These correspond in type to the Unites. They all have X behind the head, to indicate the value.

Type 1. Like Unites type 1, but shield rather differently garnished. CAROLVS. D. G. MAG. BR. FR. ET. HIB. REX. Rev. CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT. MM lis, which on rev, is to right of crown. MB. Or with rev. MM to left of crown, : after D, Mag, Br, Fr, and Hib, before Cultores, after each word on rev., and after rev. mint-mark. MB. Rud. xiii. 2 reads HI: and has the stops rather different.

Type 1a, like Unites type 1a, but the crown does not pierce the inner circle. CAROLVS: D: G: MAG: BRI FRA: ET: HI: REX. Rev. CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT MM cross on step. MB. MM negro’s head, same with no inner circle, BR. FR., one dot before Carolus, after every word, and each side of rev. mint-mark. MB. MM castle, as last but no dot before or after Carolus or after Et, two between the other words on obv., one after Rex, none on rev. MB. Or reading BRI. FR. ET. HIB., only one dot between each word on obv. THORBURN. MM anchor, as cross on step, but no inner circle on obv., BR: FR :, no dots after Carolus, Et, or Rex, one between each word on rev., beaded inner circle on rev. MB. Or MA. BR. FR. ET. HIB., faint plain inner circle on rev. EVANS. MM heart. These differ slightly by having the front part of the bust descending nearly to the edge of the coin and dividing the legend. The X in the field is larger than before, and there is an inner circle on both sides. Legends as first with MM lis, but MA., HI., no dot after Rex. MB. Or with dot after every word on both sides, except Sui; before Cultores, and after rev, mint-mark. (120) MB. Or with dot also after Sui, none after Rex or before Cultores. MB. MM plume, bust similar but smaller, dividing inner circle but not legend; X smaller. Rev, as before but the harp is smaller and has no head. Inner circle both sides. Legends as first with MM lis but MA., dot after every word and before Cultores, and after rev, mint-mark. MB. Or legends as first with MM plume but HI., plain and beaded inner circle on rev. EVANS.

Type 2. Like Unites type 2 but no dot each side of crown on rev. MM rose. Legends as first with MM lis, dot after every word on both sides except Carolus, before Carolus and after rev, mint-mark. (121) MB.

Type 3. Like Unites type 3, but bust not the same, confined within inner circle, lace different, more hair, MM rose, that on obv. being much larger than that on rev. and of a different shape. Legends as first with MM lis but MA., HI., dot after every word except Rex, two before Cultores. MB.

With bust like Unites type 3, but confined within inner circle. MM harp. .CAROLVS. D. G. MAG. BRI. FR. ET. HIB. REX. Rev, CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEGIT (122) MB. MM portcullis, same with dot between each word on rev. MB. MM bell, MA. BR. FR. ET. HI. Dot after each word on rev, and after rev, mint-mark. MB. Rud. xiii. 6. MM crown, as last but no dot either side of rev, mint-mark. MB. MM upright anchor, copied from the last but ruder, legends as MM bell, but no dot before or after obv. legend, dot between each word on rev. and after rev, mint-mark. MB. MM prostrate anchor, similar to but not identical with the last, dot before Carolus. MB. MM triangle, identical with last, but FRA. ET. HIB., dots on obv. as MM harp. MB.

With bust similar but broader, the figures in the shield larger, and letters and crowns on each side ofshield larger. MM star. Legends as MM harp but BRI: FRA: ET. HI:, no dot before or after Carolus, one after every word on rev, and after rev, mint-mark. MB.

BRIOT. 1. Exactly like Briot’s first Unite, but .BRITAN., no lozenge after Rex, rev, legend CVLTORES. SVI. DEVS. PROTEGIT. All the dots are lozenge shaped. MB. 2. Same, but lozenge with B under it instead of mint-mark on obv., MAG. BRITAN., lozenge after Rex. MB. 3. Obv. exactly like Briot’s second Unite, but MAG. BRITAN. FRAN. ET. HIB. REX Rev, same as the last two. MB. Rud. xiv. 2.

OXFORD DOUBLE CROWNS. 1642. Coin very broad and thin, bust copied from type 3 but ruder workmanship, within inner, circle; .X. behind head. MM plume. CAROLVS : D : G : MAG : BR. FR : ET : HI: REX Rev. Type like the Oxford Unites, inscription on scroll which is connected with the inner circle, three plumes, with bands under them, above it, 1642 below. EXVRGAT. DEVS. DISSIPENTVR: INIMICI : RELIG : PROT LEG : ANG LIBER : PAR. (123) MB.

1643. Bust much larger, lace and armour different, bust descends to edge of coin, legend begins at bottom, and is the same as on the first Unite of 1643 (p. 154), except that there is no dot before Carolus. Rev, same as second Unite of 1643, with small annulets for stops. There is one before Exurgat and Liber, and after every word. MB. Rud. xiii. 11.

1644. A coin similar to the last but reading MAG:, and with the date 1644, OX, is said to have been sold at Miss Currer’s sale in 1862, in extremely fine preservation, for £43, and another, very fine, with four pellets and a lozenge after Inimici, at Capt. Murchison’s sale in 1864 for £40. Num. Chr., N. S., ii. 232; iv. 229.

BRISTOL DOUBLE CROWN. Like the Bristol Unite, but bust small, entirely confined within inner circle. MM in monogram between two plumes. .CAROLVS. D. G. MAG : B : F : ET. HIB : REX. Rev. EXVRGAT. DEVS. DISSIPENTVR. INIMICI. REL : PRO : LEG: ANG: LIB : PAR: Monogram BR. between legend and inscrip tion. Date under scroll, 1645. (124) MB.

BRITAIN CROWN. Value 5s. Weight 35 5/41 grs. Fineness 22 cts. These correspond in type to the double crowns, but have V instead of X behind the head.

Type 1. MM lis, exactly like the first double crown with MM on rev, to right of crown, but HI. instead of HIB. MB. Rud. xiii. 3 reads BRI. for Br. and omits the reverse mint-mark.

Type 1a. MM cross on step, like double crown with same mint-mark. CAROLVS. D. G. MAG. BR. FR. ET HI. REX Rev. CVLTORES. SVI. DEVS. PROTEG, dot after rev. mint-mark. MB. MM negro’s head, same, but breast divides legend, MA., PROTEGIT, dot before Carolus, none on rev. MB. MM castle, no inner circle, breast does not divide legend, CAROLVS D: G: MA: BR : FR ET. HI REX Rev. CVLTORES SVI DEVS PROTEG: MB. or MAG, EVANS, or PROTEGIT, no stops on rev., : after Fr and Hi, none after Et. MB. MM heart, like negro’s head, but smaller and neater. Dot after every word except. Protegit, one before Carolus, Fr, and Cultores, and after rev, mint-mark, two after D, G, Ma, Fr, and Hi. MB. MM plume, same, with no dots on rev. MB.

Type 3. MM harp, like double crown with same mint-mark, but reading BR. FR. ET. HI., and with no inner circle. THORBURN. MM portcullis, like double crown with same mint-mark. CAROLVS. D. G. MA. BR. FR. ET. HI. REX Rev. CVLTORES. SVI. DEVS. PROTEGIT MB. MM crown, same with dot before and after obv. legend, none on rev., shield on rev, smaller. MB. MM ton, as last, but dots as portcullis. MB. Rud. xiii. 7. MM anchor, prostrate on obv., upright on rev., bust slightly different, hair finer, legends as portcullis but no dot after Hi, shield as crown and ton. (125) MB. MM triangle, type copied from the last. CAROLVS. D. G. MAG BRI. FR ET HI. REX Rev. CVLTORES. SVI. DEVS. PROTEGIT MB. MM star, same as last but D: G: MA BR: FR: ET HI MB. On this coin the MM star on the obverse is struck over a triangle. MM triangle in circle, same as triangle but MAG. BR. FR. ET. HIB. THORBURN. MM (P) on obv. only, type as MM crown, legends as triangle but FRA. MB. MM sun, type as crown, .CAROLVS. D: G: MAG: BRI: FRA: ET. HIB: REX. Rev, as triangle. MB.

BRIOT. Same as his second double crown, but obv. legend CAROLVS. D: G. MAG. BRIT. FR. ET. HIB. REX MB.

No gold coins of this small denomination seem to have been struck at any of the provincial mints.

The dates attached to the mint-marks in the following table are those given by Ruding, who copied them from Folkes.

Unite. £3. * Angel. Double Cr. Brit. Cr.
Lis, 1625. Bust in ruff and collar of garter; sq. shield + + +
Cross on step, 1625, 1626 Montagu
TYPE 1a.
Cross on step, 1625, 1626. Bust in ruff, armour, sq. shield + + + +
Negro's head, 1626, 1627 + + + +
Castle, 1627 + + + +
Anchor, 1628 + + +
Heart, 1629 + Cuff + +
Heart, rev. Plume Evans
Plume, 1630 + + +
Plume, 1630, oval sh. +
Plume, 1630, Bust in ruff, armour, oval sh. +
Rose, 1631 + + +
Rose, 1631, Bust in collar, oval shield +
Harp, 1632 + + Thorburn
Portcullis, 1633 + + + +
Bell, 1634 + Rud. +
Crown, 1635 + + +
Ton, 1636-1638 + +
Upright Anchor, 1638 +
Prostrate Anchor, 1638 + + +
Triangle, 1639 + + +
Star, 1640 + + +
Triangle in circle, 1641 + Thorburn
(P), 1643 + +
(R), 1644 +
Eye, 1645 NC
Sun, 1645 + +
Sceptre, 1646 +
Flower and B, rev. B., 1632 + +
No MM on obv., rev. B. +
B on both sides + +
Anchor, 1638 +
1642, Declaration type +
1642, MM plume + +
1643, Declaration type + +
1643, MM plume +
1643, Oxon, MM plume +
1644, Ox., MM plume + + NC
1644, Oxon, MM plume +
1645, MM plume +
1646 Ox., MM plume +
1645, BR, declaration type + +
Plume, bust in collar, oval shield +
A round object +
* The descriptions of type do not apply to the angels.

James I (1603-1625) | Table of Contents | Commonwealth (1648-1660)

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