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The Gold Coins of England

Robert Lloyd Kenyon, 1884
Edward III (1327-1377)

Table of Contents

EDWARD III 1327 TO 1377.

No further attempts were made, after the ill-received coinage of Henry III, to provide a gold currency for this kingdom, until the 17th year of King Edward III, 1343. Gold coins were, however, used in the countries with which our principal commerce was carried on, notably in North Italy, France, and Flanders; and in 1343, in order to increase the quantity of money in the kingdom and to facilitate the trade with Flanders, the Council resolved, after examining before Parliament certain merchants, goldsmiths, and moneyers, that one kind of gold money should be made both in England and Flanders, provided the Flemings were willing, to be current at such weight, alloy, and value, as should be appointed by the king and Council, and that all other gold money should be prohibited in both countries. Accordingly, in that year an indenture was made between the king and the masters and workers and changers of the money, according to which three monies of gold were to be made; one, which was called a florin, to be current at 6s, to be equal in weight to two petit florins of Florence of good weight, i.e., 108 grains; and of the same fineness, namely, 23 carats 3½ grains pure gold to ½ grain alloy; and the half and quarter florin in proportion. This money was made current by a proclamation on the 27th of January, 1343 (0. S.), in which the new coins were described as “one coin with two leopards, each piece to be current for six shillings, another piece of one leopard, and another piece of one helm, being respectively the half and quarter of the larger coin, and of proportional value,” and were ordered to be received by all persons throughout the realm. The same indenture was renewed the next year, 1344, with a new master and worker; but it was discovered that the coins were valued too high in proportion to the silver, and were consequently generally refused, and accordingly a proclamation was issued on the 9th of July to order that they should be taken in payment only with the consent of those to whom they were offered, and another on the 20th of August of the same year, 1344, declared them no longer current without the consent of the receiver, but they were to be considered as bullion and taken according to their value as such.

It is not to be wondered at that under these circumstances the form and its parts are extremely rare. Of the form two specimens only are known, both of which were found together in the river Tyne. They have on the obv. the king crowned and robed, seated under a canopy, holding a sceptre in his right hand, an orb in his left; two leopards, as mentioned in the proclamation, are placed one on each side the throne; fieur.de-lys are sprinkled over the field. Legend, EDWR ° D ° GRA ° REX ° ANGL ° Z ° FRANC ° DNS ° HIB. Rev. tressure of four curves, with a beaded interior foliated at each angle, containing a short cross with quatrefoiled and foliated ends, and a quatrefoil in the centre, upon a beaded cross voided; in each curve of the treasure is a crown, and outside each angle of the treasure is a lion or leopard. Legend : IHC : TRANSIENS : PE : MEDIVM : ILLORVM : IBAT : One of these pieces is in MB., pl. 1 (1); the other, which differs in having a fleur-de-lys between the king’s right arm and his body, and a greater number of feur-de-lys in the field, was sold at Mr. Forster’s sale in 1868 for £113, and is now in the collection of Mr. Evans. It weighs 107 grs.

HALF-FLORIN. Obv. a leopard crowned, a banner bearing the arms of France and England quartered is fastened to his neck and flows back on his shoulder. EDWAR ° D ° GRA ° REX ° ANGL ° Z ° FRANC ° DNS ° HIB. Rev, a tressure of four curves, with a beaded interior with a lis at each angle, containing a cross nearly the same as that on the form; a lion outside each angle. :DOMINE:NE:IN:FVRORE:TVO:ARGVAS:ME MB. Pl. 1. (2). Rud. Suppl. part ii, plate iii, 6. Or without the : before and after the legend. EVANS. These are the only two specimens at present known.

QUARTER FLORIN. Obv. a lion crowned standing on a cap of maintenance surmounting a helmet, attached to which is the mantling or curtain, which was worn both for ornament and as a protection against the sun. The field is strewn with lys. EDWR:R:ANGL:Z:FRANC:D:HIB. Rev, a short cross potent upon a beaded cross voided, with foliated ends, a quatrefoil in the centre. :EXALTABITVR:IN:GLORIA Pl. 1 (3). MB. Wt. 27 grs. A brilliant specimen of the quarter form was sold at Capt. Murchison’s sale in 1864 for £170. One in the Hunter Museum at Glasgow is engraved in Rud. Gold Coins, I. 1, Suppl. part ii, pl. iii, 5. Mr. Evans has one like this, but reading EXALTABITAR.

SECOND COINAGE, 1344. The issue of gold forms had been as unsuccessful as that of gold pennies; but in the same year in which the forms were called in, a new indenture was entered into between the king and the master of the mint, by virtue of which a Tower pound of gold was to be coined into 39 nobles, at 6s 8d each, or a proportionable number of half and quarter nobles; and this new money was made current by a proclamation which declared that the coins were to be called Nobles, Maille Nobles, and Ferling Nobles respectively, and that no one could refuse to take them in payment of sums of 20s and upwards, and it was ordered that no person should carry, nor cause to be carried out of the realm gold or silver in plate or in money, except the king’s money of gold aforesaid. It had been long unlawful to export silver plate or money, and this prohibition was extended to gold plate in 1331. The principal object of the gold coinage, however, was to facilitate the trade between England and Flanders, and the exportation of the gold coins was therefore freely allowed for the present, though it was stopped upon the representations of the Commons, a few years afterwards. The reason for preventing the exportation of uncoined gold was probably that it might be brought to the mint to be coined, and a certain profit obtained thereby for the king.

The weight of the new noble was 138 6/13 grs., and the fineness the same as before. The type is, obv. the king in armour, crowned, holding in his right hand a sword, in his left a shield, bearing the arms of France and England quarterly, standing in a ship, the upper part of the side of which is ornamented with three lions, behind each of which are two lis. There are three ropes from the mast to the stern of the ship, two to the prow. The French arms are not, as they subsequently became, three us only, but seme de lys, i.e., an indefinite number of lis on the shield. Legend EDWAR:D:GRA:REX:ANGL:Z:FRANC:DNS:HYB. Rev, within a compartment of double moulding of eight arches, having a trefoil in each spandril, is .a short cross potent upon a beaded cross voided with foliated ends, having L (for London) in the centre, within a compartment of four arches and four angles, with a trefoil at each angle; and there is a us opposite each end of the cross, and a lion passant guardant with a crown above it in each angle. :HIC:TRANSIENS:PER:MEDIVM:ILLORVM:IBAT Pl. i. (4). Rud, ii. 1. MB. Wt. 135 grs. Ext. rare.

The half-noble of this coinage is not known.

The quarter noble has on the obv. a shield with the arms of France and England quarterly, within a double tressure of six arches, a trefoil in each spandril, a pellet at each angle. EDWAR REX ANGL Z FRANC D HYB. A mark like an inverted comma between each word. Rev. within a compartment of eight arches is a cross with foliated ends, having L in the centre, within a compartment of four arches and four angles, with a trefoil at each angle; there is a lis opposite each end of the cross, and a lion passant guardant in each angle. EXALTABITVR:IN:GLORIA Pl. i. (5). MB. Wt. 33½ grs. Ext. rare. One was sold at Mr. Cuff’s sale in 1854 for £10, and another at Mr. Forster’s sale in 1868 for £9. Mr. Rashleigh has a quarter noble weighing 34½ grs. which has L instead of L in the centre of the reverse. It was bought at Mr. Whitbourn’s sale in 1869.

The ship which appears upon these nobles is said to commemorate the great naval victory which the English fleet, commanded by the king in person, obtained over the French fleet off Sluys, on Midsummer Day, 1340, and also to be intended to assert Edward’s claim to the sovereignty of the seas. Their name is supposed to be derived from the noble nature of the metal of which they are composed, and however this may be, their beauty seems to have made a great impression on the people, and a legend was long current that they were made by alchemy, and the inscription, “Jesus autem transiens per medium illorum ibat” (Luke iv. 30) was explained to mean that “as Jesus passed invisible and in most secret manner by the middest of the Pharisees, so gold was made by invisible and secret art amidst the ignorant;” and it was said that it was put upon the coins “because Ripley, the Aichymist, when he made gold in the Tower, the first time he found it spoke these words ‘per medium eorum,’ i.e., per medium ignis et suiphuris.” It appears, however, that this text was considered to be a charm against dangers in war and also against thieves; and it was perhaps its virtue in this last respect which caused the authorities to place it on so valuable a coin as the gold Noble.THIRD COINAGE, 1346. In the King’s 20th year, 1346, by indenture with Percival do Porche, master of the mint, the weight of the money, both of gold and silver, was diminished, 42 nobles instead of 39 being ordered to be made out of the Tower pound, so that the noble was now to weigh only 128 4/7 grs., and the half and quarter in pro portion. In the same year also, upon the petition of the Commons, an ordinance was made that no person, of what estate or condition soever, should carry out of the realm the king’s good money, including apparently the gold coins, which it had hitherto been lawful to export. The coins of this period, like all previous ones, are very rare.

NOBLE. Exactly the same as that of 1344, except that it has E, the initial of the king’s name, instead of L in the centre of the reverse. Rud. ii. 2. MB. Wt. 127 grs. Very rare. Three specimens were sold at Mr. Cuff’s sale in 1854, of which Mr. Evans has one.

HALF NOBLE. Type as the noble, but three ropes from each end of the ship, and three lions each followed by a us on the side. EDWAR. DEI. G. REX. ANGL. Z. FRANC. D Rev. DOMINE ° NE ° IN ° FVRORE ° TVO : ARGVAS ° ME. E in centre, lis before head of lion in second quarter, two dots over upper limb of cross. Pl. i. (6). MB. Wt. 60½ grs., considerably clipped. Very rare. The object in the centre of the reverse is probably an E, but is not very distinct. The Ns on the reverse of this coin are of the Roman shape, not, as on all previous coins, Lombardic.

QUARTER NOBLE. Type as the previous issue of 1344, but the compartment on the reverse is double, and it has E instead of L in the centre. :EDWAR : R : ANGL : Z : FRANE : D : HYB : EXALTABITVR : IN : GLORIA : Pl. i. (7). MB. Wt. 32’3 grs. Two of these were sold at Mr. Cuff’s sale in 1854 for 12s and 13s respectively, and one at Mr. Duncombe’s sale in June, 1869. Very rare.

FOURTH COINAGE, 1351. Notwithstanding the diminution made in the weight of the noble in 1346, it was still found that the English coins “had hitherto been so much better than those of any other nation, that they were exported, and base money brought into the realm, to the impoverishment of the people ;“ and accordingly in 1351 the weight of the coins both of gold and silver was still further reduced, and the noble, retaining the same nominal value of 6s 8d, was now to weigh only 120 grs., 45 being made out of the Tower pound, and the others in proportion. An ordinance was made at the same time forbidding all persons to carry out of the realm any gold or silver, either in plate or in money; but this would appear to be repealed by the Statute of the Staple, in 1353, which provided that “no one should carry out of the realm the old sterlings nor any other money but the king’s new money of gold and silver,” so that an implied permission ‘was given to export new money. This permission was revoked by a statute of 1381.

The pieces of the fourth coinage are of the same type as those of former years, but they may be divided by their legends into three periods, namely, from 1351 to 1360, when the title of King of France appears on the coins, but not that of Lord of Aquitaine; from 1360 to 1369, when, in accordance with the treaty of Bretigny in the former year, the title of King of France was omitted and that of Lord of Aquitaine substituted for it; and from 1369 to the king’s death in 1377, when, the treaty of Bretigny having been broken by Charles V, both titles were used. The pieces of this coinage are by no means uncommon.

NOBLES. Type like those of 1346, having E in the centre of the reverse, and trefoils in the spandrils.

1351 to 1360. The title King of France appears upon all of these, but never that of Duke of Aquitaine; and with the exception of the first coin described, all of them have a us over the head of the lion in one quarter or other of the reverse, and are ornamented, either between the words or in the field of the reverse, with annulets. The letters of the legend are generally of the old English or Lombardic shape, but with one exception (No. 16), the Ns are always of the Roman shape. 1. EDWARD X DEI X GRA X REX X ANGL X Z FRANC D h. Three ropes from stern, one from prow; three lions, each preceded by two us, on the side of the ship. Rev. IHE X AVTEM X TRANCIENS : P X MEDIVM ILLORVM X YBAT. Two dots over upper limb of cross. MB. This coin was found with No. 12 in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. 2. Same but D HYB, three ropes from each end of ship, three lis only in French arms on shield, IBAT, two annulets instead of dots over upper limb of cross, lis over head of lion in second quarter. MB. 3. EDWARD x GRA REX X ANUL X Z FRANC D HYB. Three ropes from stern, none from prow, three lis only in French arms, ornaments on ship as 1. Rev. IHC°AVTEM°TRANCIENS°P°MEDIVM°ILLORVM°IBAT, MM crown, lis over head of lion in second quarter. MB. 4. Same, but with one rope from the prow, French arms semé de lys; the stops are an annulet before Edward and between all the words except after Edward, Rex, D, and Illorum. Pl. ii. (8). MB. 5. °E°DWARD°DEI°GRA°ANGL°Z°FRANC°D°HY°B°E. Ropes and ornaments as No. 1. Rev, legend as No. 3, lis in second quarter. MB. Mr. Evans has one like 3, but without the MM; two ropes from prow, EDVARD, no X after D; and another in bad condition but apparently like 3, without the MM, three ropes from prow, IB for Ibat. 6. As No. 1, but D HYB, IBAT, ornaments on side of ship are lion, lis, lion, lis, lion. Lis in second quarter, two annulets over upper limb of cross. Rud. ii. 3. MB. 7. Obv. as No. 6. Rev. IHC X AVEM (sic) X TRANCIENS X P X MEDIVM X ILLORVM x IBAT. One annulet to right of upper limb of cross, lis in 2nd quarter. MB. 8. X EDWERD X DEI X GRA X REX ANGL X Z X FRANC D B, two ropes from stern, one from prow, three lis only in French arms, ornaments on ship as No. 6. Rev, as No. 1, but IHC, IBAT, two annulets over upper limb of cross, lis in 2nd quarter. MB. 9. EDWARD°DEI°GRA°REX°ANGL°Z°FRANC°D°HYB; two ropes from stern, one from prow, ornaments on ship as No.6. Rev. IHC X AVTEM X TRANCIENS X P X MEDIVM ILLORVM IBAT. Lis in second quarter. EVANS. 10. Same as last, but three ropes from prow, no annulet after D, saltire after every word on rev. MB. 11. Obv. legend as 9, but FR°ANC°; three ropes from each end of ship, ornaments on ship lis, lion, lis, lion, lis, lion, lis; lettering smaller than usual. Rev. IHES°AVTEM°TRANCIENS°PER°MEDIV°ILDORVM°IBAT, lis in second quarter. EVANS. 12. Obv. legend as 9, but HYBE, no stops between the words, three ropes from each end of the ship, ornaments on ship one lis, lion, two lis, lion, two lis, lion, two lis, lettering small. Rev, as the last. MB. Mr. Evans has one reading EDWAD & ILLORV, and with : between the words on rev. 13. Legends as 9, but HI for Hyb, ropes and ornaments as 12, annulet between words on both sides, lis in third quarter. MB. 14. Same as last, but HYB, IBA, and with lis in first quarter instead of third. Rud. i. 2. MB. 15. Legends as 9, three ropes from stern, four from prow, annulet between words on both sides, lis in first quarter, ornaments on ship are two lis, lion, two lis, lion, two lis, lion, two lis. MB. 16. Obv. legend as 9, three ropes from each end of ship, ornaments on ship one lis, lion, two lis, lion, two lis, lion, one lis. Rev. IHC:TRANSIENS:PER:MEDIVM:ILLORVM:IBAT. Lis over head of lion in first quarter. MB. The Ns on the reverse of this coin are of the Lombardic not the Roman form. 17. Obv. as last Rev. IHE°AVTEM°TRANCIENS°P MEDIVM° ILLORVM°IBA°, lis over head of lion in second quarter. MB.

1360 to 1369. These differ from the previous nobles in that, in consequence of the treaty of Bretigny, the name of France never appears on them, but that of Aquitaine generally does. Most of them are marked with annulets, but these never occur, as on former nobles, between the words of the legend. On many coins of this time aunulets are substituted for trefoils at the angles of the central compart ment on the reverse.

18. EDWARDVS:DEI:GRA x REX x ANGL X DENS X HYB. Three ropes from stern, two from prow; ornaments on ship as Nos. 16 and 17. Rev. IHC X AVTEM : PER : MEDIVM : ILLORVM : IBAT. Lis over head of lion in second quarter, annulet instead of trefoil at each angle of centre compartment, three pellets, for trefoil, in each spandril. Pl. ii (11) MB. On this coin the N in ANGL is of the Roman shape, that in DENS of the Lombardic. On all subsequent nobles the Lombardic shape only is used. 19. Obv. from the same die as the last. Rev. IHC X AVTEM :TRANSIENS : PER : MED X ILLORR : IBAT. Lis and annulets as the last. MB. The last two coins omit the French title but do not add that of Aquitaine; but the lis over the head of the lion in the second quarter, and the ornaments on the ship, connect them closely with the last of the coins struck before 1360, and show that they must have been struck very soon after that date. The blunders in the legends on these and the next coins seem to show that the change of title caused some confusion in the mint. 20. EDWARDVS X DEI x GRA x REX : ANGLIE : Z : AQVTA X D X E'. Three ropes from each end, ornaments on ship as Nos. 16-19. Rev. IHC X AVTEM X TRANSIEVS : MEDIVM : ILLORR X IBAT Lis and annulets as the two last. MB. 21. EDWARD X DEI X GRA X REX X ANGL X DNS X HIBN X Z X AQ. Three ropes from each end, ornaments as Nos. 16-20. Rev. IHC X AVTE X TRANSIENS : PER : MEDVM : ILLORR X IBAT. Lis and annulets as the three last. MB. 22. Obv. legend as last but HYB X Z X AQT, two saltires between all the other words, and before Edward; three ropes from stern, two from prow; ornaments on side of ship are a lion, two lis, a lion, two lis. Rev. IHC : AVTEM : TRANSIENS : PER : MEDIVM : ILLORV : IBAT. Trefoils at angles of centre compartment. MB. 23. Same as last without saltires before Edward, and reading MEDIV : ILLORVM : MB. 24. Same as last with annulet before Edward. MB.

CALAIS. The foregoing coins all have E, for the name of the king, in the centre of the reverse, with the possible exception of No. 20, on which the letter may be either E or C; but there are three coins of this period, 1360 to 1369, in the British Museum which have a C instead of a E in that place, and which also differ from the others in having a flag at the stern of the ship; and it is supposed that these coins were struck at Calais. A mint was established at Calais as early as the year 1347, immediately after its conquest by the English, but it is not till the year 1363 that there is any proof of gold being coined there. In that year the Mayor was commanded to enforce an ordinance which had been previously published forbidding the currency of any money in the town except that which was coined at the mint there; and all persons importing wool from England to Calais were ordered to bring, for every sack of wool so imported, five shillings in weight of fine gold, or other bullion of gold or silver, to the Calais mint. In 1364 Guater dd Barde, master of the mint in the Tower of London, undertook to coin the king's money of gold and silver at Calais, of the same weight and alloy as the money of the Tower. It is probable that the three following coins are specimens of this money; and although, as being struck at Calais, they cannot strictly claim a place among English coins, yet we insert them here for the present because, even though struck at Calais, they no doubt had a legal currency in England; and also because it is possible that, after all, the C, on which we rest their appropriation, may have been intended for an E, and that they may therefore, like the rest, have been struck at the Tower. In any case it is probable that the dies were made at the Tower, in order to ensure their uniformity with those of the English coins. 25. Same as 22, but with no saltires before Edward, a flag at the stern of the ship, and C in the centre of the reverse. MB. 26. Same as the last, with small open quatrefoil before Edward. See Rud. i. 4. MB. 27. Same as the last, omitting the saltires after PER. MB. A Calais noble without the flag was sold at Mr. Cuff’s sale in 1854 for £3. 1s. Mr. Evans has one exactly like 23, but reading HYB AQVT.

1369 to 1377. During this period the names both of France and Aquitaine appear upon the coins. The annulet mark is sometimes used, but never either between the words of the legend or at the angles of the central compart ment on the reverse. All except the first mentioned in this class have three ropes from the stern, one from the prow of the ship, and have the side of the ship ornamented by a lis, lion, lis, lion, lis, lion, lis.

28. °EDWARD : DEI : G : REX: ANG x Z x FRA : DNS : HYB x Z x AT. Otherwise exactly the same as No. 24. MB. See Rud. i. 3. 29. EDWARD x DI x GRA x REX x ANGL x Z x FRANC x DNS x HIB x Z x AQVIT. Flag at stern. Rev. IHC : AVTEM : TRANSIENS : PER : MEDIVM : ILLORVM : IBAT. Pellet after the E in the centre, two dots over the lis on the top and bottom limbs of the cross. Rud. Suppl. pl. vi. 19. MB. This is the only noble with a flag at the stern of the ship which has not got C instead of E in the centre of the reverse. 30. Like the last, but without the flag, no pellets over the limbs of the cross, saltire after Ibat. MB. 31. Same but reading EDWARDVS, AQT. MB. 32. Same, with no saltire after Ibat. MB. 33. Legends as 29 but AQ, small cross after the E in the centre, annulet at spring of first arch. MB. 34. Legends as 29 but AQ, MEDIV, ILLORV. E in centre reversed, two saltires before Gra and Aq. MB. A noble with Edward’s name, but with R in the centre of the reverse, will be found described under Richard II’s reign. CALAIS. C in centre of reverse. Otherwise exactly like 28, but AQT, ILLORV. EVANS.

HALF NOBLES, 1351 to 1360. These, like the nobles of the same period, which they very closely resemble, have the titles of England and France but not of Aquitaine. The type and legends are similar to those of the earlier half nobles. Annulets occur between the words of the legends on coins of this class only. 1. EDWAR x DEI x G x REX x ANGL x Z x FRANC d (Hyb omitted). Three ropes from stern, one from prow. Ornaments on ship lis, lion, lis, lion, lis, lion, lis. Rev. DOMINE NE x IN x FVRORE x TVO x ARGVAS x ME. Two dots over upper limb of cross on rev. MB. Cf. noble No. 1, and half noble of 1346. 2. EDWAR ° D ° GRA ° REX ° ANGL Z FRA ° D ° HY. Three ropes from stern, four from prow. Ornaments on ship two lis, lion, one lis, lion, two lis. Rev. DOMINE NE : IN : FVRORE : TVO : ARGVAS : ME. Lis over head of lion in second quarter. MB. 3. Same but HYB, no annulet before Gra, E in centre of reverse placed diagonally, no lis in second quarter. Pl. ii (9). MB. Cf. nobles, Nos. 15-17.

1360 to 1369. Without the title of France, but generally with that of Aquitaine. All of these have three ropes from the stern, two from the prow. 4. EDWARDVS : DEI : G : REX ANGL x D x H. Ornaments on ship lis, lion, lis, lion, lis, lion. Rev. DOMINE : IN : FVRORE : TVO : ARGVAS : M (omitting the important word NE). Annulet at each angle of central compartment, lis over head of lion in second quarter. MB. Major Thorburn has one reading EDWARD and HIB with x between each word on obv.; and ME on rev. Cf. nobles, Nos. 18, 19. 5. ED x DEI : GRA x REX x ANGL x DNS x HIB x Z x AQ Q Rev. DOMINE : IN : FVRORE : TVO : ARGVTS : ME. Otherwise as the last. MB. 6. Obv. from same die as the last. Rev, as last, but ARGVAS instead of arguts, one saltire after each word on rev. MB. 7. x EDWARD DEI : G : REX : ANGL : D HYB x Z x AQT. Ornaments on ship lion, two us, lion, two us. Rev. DOMINE : NE : IN : FVRORE : TVO : ARGVAS : ME. Cf. noble, No. 22. MB. 8. Same as the last, with annulet instead of saltire before Edward. MB. Cf. noble, No. 24. Major Stewart Thorburn has two similar ones with no mark before Edward, one of which has a small trefoil instead of x each side of Z.

CALAIS.—These have C instead of E in the centre of the reverse. 9. Same as 7, but with no mark before Edward. Pl. ii. (12) MB. 10. Same as the last, but with a flag at the stern. Rud. i. 5. MB. 1369 to 1377. The nobles of this period have the titles both of France and Aquitaine, but the latter does not appear upon any half nobles. We attribute, however, to this period those half nobles which, bearing the French title, differ from the others which bear it by having a flag at the stern of the ship and three ropes from the stern and only one from the prow, like the nobles of the same period. The flag appears upon no coins before the treaty of Bretigny in 1360.

ii. EDWARD x DI x GRA x REX x ANGL x Z x FRANC x D. Ornaments on ship, lis, lion, lis, lion, lis. Rev, legend as 7, with saltire after ME. Cf. noble, No. 30. (14) MB. 12. Same as last, omitting D. It is not clear whether this coin has E or C or even R in the centre of the reverse.

CALAIS. Same as No. 12, with no saltire after Franc or Me, and with C in the centre of the reverse. MB.

QUARTER NOBLES, 1351-1360. These have for type, obv. a shield with the arms of France and England quarterly within a double tressure of eight arches, a trefoil at the angle of each arch; the whole within an inner circle. The name of France always appears in the legend, but never that of Aquitaine. Rev, within a double tressure of eight arches is a cross having some ornament in the centre, the extremities are foliated, and there is a lis opposite each of them, and a lion passant guardant in each angle. The whole within an inner circle. The following varieties occur: 1. EDWAR x R x ANGL x Z x FRANC x D x HY Rev. EXALTABITVR x IN x GLORIA. Doubtful object in centre, two dots over upper limb of cross. MB. 2. Obv. as last, but annulet instead of saltire between the words. Rev. GAhLORI for Gloria, pellet? in centre, one annulet over upper limb of cross; saltire between words. MB. 3. Same as 2, but GhLORIA, annulet between words on both sides and after Ghloria, none over cross, pellet in centre of cross. MB. 4. EDWAR ° D ° G ° REX ° ANGL ° Z ° FRANC. Rev. EXALTABITVR x IN x GhLORIA: E in centre of cross. Pl. ii. (10) MB. 5. Same as 4, but annulet after exaltabitur, no marks after the other words on rev. MB. 6, Obv. as 5. Rev. EXALTABITVR : IN : GLORIA ° A; E in centre of cross. MB. 7. EDWAR ° R ° ANGL Z FRANC ° D° HYBER. Rev, as 6. MB. 8. EDWAR ° D ° G ° REX ° ANGL Z FRAE ° D ° HYB. Rev, as 6, but AI instead of A, one annulet after exaltabitur and in, two after Gloria. Rud. i. 9. MB. 9. Obv. legend as 1, but two saltires after R, none after D. Rev. EXATABITVR (sic) x IN x GLORIA; E in centre of cross. MB. 10. EDWR x R x ANGLIE x F x DNVS x HV. Rev. EXALTABITvR x IN x GLORIA x:x. E in centre of cross. MB.

1360 to 1369. These quarter nobles are distinguished from the previous ones by the omission of the title of King of France. The title of Duke of Aquitaine, however, which was placed upon the larger coins of this period, does not appear on these, and the French title does not seem to have been reintroduced upon them in 1369, so that the quarter nobles struck during the observance of the treaty of Bretigny are not distinguishable by their legends from those struck after the breach of that treaty. Those which we are now about to describe may, however, safely be attributed to this period, on account of having annulets in the angles of the cross on the reverse, a peculiarity which appears on nobles and half nobles of this date only. In other respects they resemble the previous quarter nobles in type, except that the ornaments in the centre of the cross on the reverse are different, and that they never have annulets between the words of their legends. Neither E nor C ever occurs in the centre of the cross.

11. EDWAR x DEI : GRAC x REX : ANGL x D. Annulet instead of trefoil at the angle of each arch, trefoil in each spandril. Rev. EXALTABITVR : IN : GLORIA : Pellet within annulet in centre of cross, annulet in each angle, pellet in each spandril. Pl. ii. (13) MB. 12. Obv. as 11, omitting D, with one saltire only between each word, and pellet instead of trefoil in each spandril. Rev, as ii, omitting the saltires after Gloria. Rud. i. 7. MB. 13. Obv. legend as 11, trefoil at each angle, pellet in each spandril. Rev, as the last. MB. Major Thorburn has one with obv. as 12, but with trefoil at each angle, ERWAR, GRA; rev, as 11, but GLRIA :. 14. Obv. as 13, but trefoil instead of pellet in each spandril. Rev, legend as 11, pellet within compartment in centre of cross, annulet in each angle, trefoil in each spandril, no saltires after Gloria. MB. 15. EDWAR x DEI x GRA x REX x ANGL. Trefoil at each angle, pellet in each spandril. Rev. EXALTBITVTR x IN x GLORIA x Pellet in centre of cross, in each angle, and in each spandril. MB. This coin much more closely resembles those that have than those that have not annulets in the angles of the cross, and is therefore placed with them, but at the end of the period. The legend is blundered, as is the case on so many of the coins struck about the time when a change of type or legend was in progress at the mint.

1369 to 1377. Legend like the quarter nobles of the last period, and type the same except that in the centre of the cross on the reverse is a compartment having a trefoil at each angle, like that on the coins previous to 1360; within the compartment is some ornament.16. EDWARD : DEI : GRA : REX : ANGL. Trefoil at each angle, nothing in the spandrils, cross within annulet over shield. Rev. EXALTABITVR : IN : GLORIA, annulet in centre of cross, nothing in spandrils. MB. 17. Same as last with pellet or annulet before Edward. MB. 18. Obv. as 16, but cross over shield. Rev, as last, but open quatrefoil in centre of cross. (15) MB. 19. Legends as 16. Obv. trefoil at each angle, nothing in spandrils. Rev. quatrefoil in centre of cross, nothing in spandrils. Rud. i. 8. MB. 20. Obv. as last, with annulet before Edward. Rev, as last, but lis in centre of cross. MB. 21. Obv. as 19. Rev, as 19, but us in centre of cross; one saltire only between each word. MB. On some of these last coins the trefoils at the angles on the obverse look more like rosettes.

London and Calais seem to have been the only places at which gold coins of the English type were struck during this reign, for though the king had a mint at York it does not appear to have issued gold coins, and those which were struck in Aquitaine were of an entirely different denomina tion and type. The ecclesiastical mints, at which the smaller silver pieces were coined, were never allowed to strike gold. In 1346 the king made a treaty with the Flemings for the purpose of making a uniform gold currency for the two countries, of having his own gold coins struck in Flanders, and of dividing between the two countries the profits which should arise from such a coinage; and he appointed William Stury and Gilbert de Wendlyngburgh to coin Pennies, Halfpennies, and Farthings (of gold) called Nobles, in Ghent, Bruges, and Ipre. It does not appear, however, that this coinage was ever actually carried out.

Mint-marks, usually so called, that is to say, peculiar marks placed at the beginning of the legend on one or both sides of the coin, for the purpose of distinguishing one coinage from another, were not regularly used until the reign of Edward IV. But Edward III and all succeeding monarchs placed marks for this purpose on some part or other of the coins in order that the pieces for which one master of the mint or one moneyer was responsible might be known from those of another; and if proper records of the proceedings of the mint could be found, we should no doubt be able to arrange the coins by means of these marks almost as accurately as if they had dates upon them.

The following is a table of the principal of these marks on the money of Edward III, the crosses showing upon what coins in the British Museum the marks in question are now found :—

TABULAR VIEW. Flor. ½Flor. ¼Flor.
1ST COINAGE, 1343, florins. + + +
Noble. ½Noble. ¼Noble.
2ND COINAGE, 1344, nobles, Wt. 138 6/13 grs.
L in centre of reverse + +
E in centre of reverse Rashleigh.
3RD COINAGE, 1346, nobles, Wt. 128 4/7 grs.
€ in centre of reverse + +
€ in centre of reverse, lis in second quarter,
two dots over upper limb of cross
+
4TH COINAGE, 1351, nobles, Wt. 120 grs.
1351-1360. Title of King of England and France.
Two dots over upper limb of cross on rev. + + +
Lis in 2nd quarter, 2 annulets over upper limb of cross +
Lis in 2nd quarter, 2 annulets over upper limb of cross, MM crown, annulets in rev. legend +
Lis in 2nd quarter, 2 annulets over upper limb of cross, MM crown, annulets in legends +
Lis in 2nd quarter, 2 annulets over upper limb of cross, annulets in legends +
Lis in 2nd quarter, 2 annulets over upper limb of cross, 2 annulets over upper limb of cross, 3 lions and 2 lis on ship +
Lis in 2nd quarter, 2 annulets over upper limb of cross, 1 annulet over upper limb of cross, 3 lions and 2 lis on ship +
Pellet in centre of rev., 1 annulet over upper limb of cross, annulets in obv. legend +
Lis in 2nd quarter, annulets in obv. legend + +
Lis in 2nd quarter, annulets in legends, 3 lions and 4 lis on ship Evans.
Lis in 2nd quarter, annulets in rev. legend, 3 lions and 7 lis on ship +
Lis in 2nd quarter, annulets in legends, 3 lions and 7 lis on ship Evans.
Pellet in centre of rev. annulets in legends +
E in centre of rev., annulets in legends +
Lis in 3rd quarter, annulets in legends +
Lis in 1st quarter, annulets in legends +
Lis in 1st quarter, annulets in legends, 3 lions and 8 lis on ship +
Lis in 1st quarter, annulets in obv. legend, 3 lions and 6 lis on ship +
Lis in 2nd quarter, annulets in legends, 3 lions and 6 lis on ship +
Annulets in obv. legend +
E in centre of rev., no annulets +
1360-1369, title of King of France omitted. That of Duke of Aquitaine is generally used on the nobles and half nobles.
Lis in 2nd quarter, annulet at each angle of centre compartment on rev. + +
Pellet within annulet in centre of cross on rev., annulet at angle of each arch on obv. and in each angle of cross on rev +
Pellet within annulet in centre of cross on rev., annulet in each angle +
Pellet within compartment in centre of cross on rev., annulet in each angle +
Pellet in centre of cross on rev, and in each angle +
No lis in field, trefoils at angles + +
Same, with annulet before Edward + +
CALAIS.-No peculiar marks Evans. +
CALAIS.-Flag at stern of ship + +
CALAIS.-Flag at stern of ship, quatrefoil before Edward +
1369 to 1377, titles of King of France and Duke of Aquitaine both used on nobles. Flag at stern of ship on half nobles.
Annulet in centre of rev., cross within annulet over shield on obv. +
Same as last with annulet before Edward +
Annulet before Edward +
E and pellet in centre of rev., two dots over lis on top and bottom limbs of cross, flag at stern of ship +
Flag at stern of ship +
E and pellet in centre of rev. +
E and cross in centre of rev., annulet at spring of first arch. +
E reversed in centre of rev. +
Open quatrefoil in centre of rev., cross over shield on obv. +
Quatrefoil in centre of rev. +
Lis in centre of rev. annulet before Edward +
Lis in centre of rev. +
CALAIS.-Flag at stern of ship +
CALAIS.-No flag Evans.

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