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The Gold Coins of England

Robert Lloyd Kenyon, 1884
(Richard II 1377-1399)

Table of Contents

RICHARD II, 1377 TO 1399.

The coins of Richard II resemble in all respects the last issued by his grandfather, excepting that they have Richardís name on the obverse, and R instead of E in the centre of the reverse. The noble continued to weigh 120 grs., and was current for 6s 8d, and the others in proportion; but from several petitions presented to Parliament in this reign, and from the examination of some witnesses upon this point before the House of Lords in 1381 and 1382, it appears that the intrinsic value of the gold coins was higher than their nominal value. Great complaints were also made of the clipping of the coins, both of gold and silver, and of their exportation; and accordingly a statute was passed in 1381 forbidding their exportation except for the wages of the kingís fortresses beyond the sea. The gold coins are not common. At Mr. Bergnesí sale, in 1873, two half nobles sold for £10. 10s and £15 respectively.

NOBLES. Type exactly like Edward IIIís last nobles, with, like them, three ropes from the stern, one from the prow. 1. Obv. from a die of Edward III, EDWARD x DI x GRA x REX x ANGL x Z x FRANC x DNS x HIB x Z x AQ Annulet ? before Edward. No flag. Ornaments on shipís side, lis, lion, lis, lion, lis, lion, lis. Rev. IHC : AVTEM : TRANSIENS : PER : MEDIVM : ILLORVM : IBAT : R (for Richard) in centre of cross. MB. 2. RICARD : D : G : REX : ANGL x Z : FRAN x D : HIB x Z x AQ Flag at stern, ornaments on ship as No. 1. Rev, from a die of Edward III, with E in the centre. Legend as the last but ILLORV. MB. Mr. Evans has one with obv. as 2, rev, as 1 but ILLORV x IBAT. 3. Obv. same, but omitting A in Ricard, and having no flag at stern. Rev, as 1, but MEDIV : ILLORV no saltires after Ibat. MB. This coin, and Nos. 4, 7, and 11, were found in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. Captain Stewart Thorburn has a similar one with only one cross after Ricard and Z, and reading TRANSIES. 4. RICARD x DI : G : REX : ANGL x Z : FRANC x D : HIB x Z x AQ. No flag; ornaments on ship as 1. Rev, as 1, but MEDIV :, no saltires after Ibat. MB. 5. RICARD x DEI : GRA x REX : ANGL x DNS x HIB x Z x AQT. Flag at stern, ornaments as 1. Rev, as the last. MB. See Rud. i. 10, which reads DI. 6. Same as the last, but without the flag; two saltires after Ricard. Rev, legend IHC x AVTEM : TRANSIENS : PER : MEDIV x ILLORV x IBAT. (16) MB. 7. Obv. as 5, but omitting Z and the last lis on the shipís side, and reading AQ. No flag. Rev, as last but IHC :. MB. 8. RICARD x DI x GRA x REX : ANGL x Z x FRANC x DNS x HIB x Z x AQ. No flag; ornaments on ship as 1, lis on the rudder. Rev, as 1, but MEDIV x; no saltires after Transiens or Ibat. MB. 9. RICARD x DI x GRA x REX x ANGL x Z x FRANC x DNS x HIB Z AQ. Flag at stern, ornaments on ship as 1, pellet above the shield. Rev, as 1, but only one saltire after Ihc, none after Ibat. MB. 10. Same, but D instead of Dns, and AQT (?); ornaments on ship lion, lis, lion, lis, lion; MEDIV : instead of Medium. MB. 11. Obv. as 9 but AQT; ornaments on ship as 10, small dot at corner of shield instead of pellet above it. Rev, as 7. MB. 12. Rud. ii. 4 gives an obverse like this without the dot at the corner of the shield, and with no flag, but with an escallop shell on the rudder. 13. Obv. as 11 without the dot. Rev. IHC : AVTEM : TRANSIENS : PER : MEDIV : ILLORVM : IBAT. MB.

HALF NOBLES. Type like the previous ones. The ornaments on the ship seem always to be three lions, with a lis between each, as on the last nobles, except No. 3, which has none. 1. RICARD x D : G x REX : ANGL x Z x FRANC x D x h. Flag at stern. Rev. DOMINE : NE : IN : FVRORE : TVO : ARGVAS : ME. E in centre, from a reverse die of Edward III, Cf. noble, No. 2. MB. Rud. ii. 5 gives an obverse similar to this but reading DI x GRA x REX x ANGL x Z FRANC x D : HYB. 2. Obv. as 1, but with AQ following h, a saltire in the field near the rudder, two after Rex, one between the other words. Rev, as 1, but R stamped over E in the centre. MB. 3. RICARD x DI x GRA x REX x ANGL x Z x FR x D : h : Z x No flag, and no lion or lis on side of ship. Rev, as No. 1, except that in the die an R seems to have been cut upside down over the E. (17) MB. 4. RICARD x DI x G REX x ANGL x Z x F x DNS HIB A. No flag. Rev, as 1, but R in centre, saltire after Me. MB. 5. RICARD : D : G : REX : ANGL : Z : F : D : HIB : Z : AQ. No flag. Rev, as 1, but R in centre. MB. 6. RICARD x DEI x GRA x REX : ANGL x DNS x HIB Z AQ. No flag. Rev, as last. Rud. i. 11. MB. 7. Same, but D, AQT. THORBURN.

QUARTER NOBLES. Like the last ones of Edward III. 1. RICARD x DEI : GRA : REX : ANGL. Trefoil at each angle, nothing in spandrils. Rev. EXALTABITVR : IN : GLORIA. Lis in centre of cross, nothing in spandrils. Except the kingís name, this is almost identical with the last of Edward IIIís quarter nobles. (18) MB. 2. Same, but DI :, ANG : MB. or ANGL, dot before and two after rev, legend. EVANS. 3. RICARD : D : GRA : REX : ANGL : Z : F. Small cross or quatrefoil above shield on obv., a single saltire between words on rev. Otherwise as 1. EVANS. 4. RICARD x D x GRA x REX x ANGLIE; obv. as last. Rev. EXALTABITVR x IN x GLORIA. Pellet in centre. MB. 5. RICARD DI G x REX : ANGL Z FRAC. Trefoil at each angle, nothing in spandrils; trefoil, or three annulets united, above shield. Rev. EXALTABITR : IN : GLORIA. Pellet in centre of rev. This is in the collection of Mr. H. Montagu, 34, Queenís Gardens. 6. As 1, but escallop over shield on obv., pellet in centre of rev., two saltires after every word. MB.7. Same as 2, but pellet in centre of reverse. MB. 8. RICARD x DI x GRA x REX x ANGL x Z x F. Trefoil at each angle and in each spandril. Rev, as 1, but pellet in the centre. MB. 9. Same as 1, but legends RICARD : DI : GRA : REX : ANG x Rev. EXALTABTTVR x IN GLORIA. Two pellets in centre of reverse. THORBURN. 10. Same as 1, but two saltires after Ricard, R in centre. MB.

Richard II does not appear to have used any mint except that in the Tower.

TABULAR VIEW. Noble. ½Noble. ¼Noble.
Obverse from die of Edward III +
Reverse from die of Edward III, flag at stern + +
Reverse from die of Edward III, flag at stern, saltire in field near rudder +
Reverse from die of Edward III, no flag, no lions or lis on ship +
No flag nor special marks + +
Flag, no special marks +
Lis in centre of cross on rev. +
No flag, last lis on ship's side omitted +
No flag, lis on rudder +
Flag, pellet above shield +
Lis in centre of rev., cross or quatrefoil above shield Evans.
Pellet in centre of rev., cross or quatrefoil above shield +
Pellet in centre of rev., trefoil above shield Montagu
Flag, dot at corner of shield +
Pellet in centre of rev., escallop above shield +
No flag, escallop on rudder Rud.
Pellet in centre of rev., no special marks +
Pellet in centre of rev., trefoils in spandrils +
Two pellets in centre of rev. Thorburn
R in centre of rev. +

Edward III (1327-1377) | Table of Contents | Henry IV (1399-1413)


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