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The Copper, Tin, and Broze Coinage of England
H Montagu, F.S.A, , 1893
Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell

There are five (or perhaps only four) types of farthings of Cromwell extant, all bearing his bust laurelled, which was probably the work of David Ramage. The workmanship displayed on these pieces is so inferior to that which is conspicuous on the silver coinage by Thomas Simon that they are not likely to have been engraved by that artist. The reverses of Nos. 1 and 3 appear to have been struck from dies engraved by Rawlins.

1. O. OLIVAR. PRO. ENG. SC. IRL.. The bust of the Protector, laureate, to the left in an inner circle, which is incomplete at the top to allow the head to penetrate to the outer margin of the coin. The words divided by lozenges.
    R. THVS. VNITED. INVINCIBLE. m. m. a mullet. Three pillars linked together, bearing respectively a cross, harp and a thistle. Under the pillars, the letter R. The words divided by small lozenges. (Snelling, Copp. Coins, Pl. 6, No. 8, but the small R and the lozenges are omitted on the reverse.)

2. O. OLIVAR. PRO. ENG. SC. IRL.. The words divided by lozenges. Bust as on No. 1.
    R. CHARITIE. AND. CHANGE. Words divided as before. Shield of arms as on the silver coinage of the Protector, in an inner circle. No mint mark on obverse or reverse. R. 8.

This, as the preceding, is of copper.

3. O. As No. 2.
    R. As the R. of No. 5 of the Commonwealth coins, with 'CORSE.'

This is of copper gilt set in a white metal rim of a chain pattern. The only specimen known is in the National Collection. It is photographed in Henfrey's Numismata Cromwelliana, Pl. IV., No. 9, and was probably only an experimental pattern unless, indeed, it be composed of the obverse of one coin and the reverse of another, an operation which the metal chain surrounding it would in that event effectually conceal.

4. O. OLIVER. PRO. ENG. SCO. AND. IRE. The bust as on No. 1, but no inner circle. m. m. mullet.
    R. CONVENIENT. CHANGE. 1651. Shield of Arms as on No. 2. No inner circle. m. m. mullet.

The only specimen I have seen of this, is of copper, and is in the National Collection (from the Tyssen Sale, 1802). It is also figured in Snelling, Copp. Coins, Pl. 6, No. 9, and in Ruding's Silver Coins, Pl. XXXII. No. 10. I am of the opinion that it is not a genuine coin. The general appearance of the piece is in itself suspicious, and the spelling of OLIVER and IRE are equally so. In addition to these points it will be observed that the date clearly involves an error on the part of the engraver, as Cromwell did not assume the dignity of Protector till December, 1653.

5. O. As Nos. 1 and 2, but the bust is entirely within the inner circle. m. m. mullet.
    R. As No. 2. The crown which surmounts the shield penetrates through the inner circle, which is incomplete. No m. m. R. 7.

This is generally of copper, but there is one also in silver in my collection. All the above coins have the edge plain.

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